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Ainu for Beginners - Part 10

Lesson 46: «Tuytak»

Text

( Beginning of the story )

ハー
ha

 コタン
Iskar kotan
Village of Ishikari

コタン エトコ
Kotan etoko
Hill of the village

アコホラリ ワ オカヤン
A=kohorari wa okay=an
I was living.

パウ パウ ハエエエエエ (Refrain)
Paw paw haeeeee

 コタン
Iskar kotan
Village of Ishikari

コタン エトコ
Kotan etoko
Hill of the village

アコホラリ オカヤン アワ
A=kohorari okay=an awa
I was living there, but

ポコインネアン マ
Pokoinne=an ma
I had a lot of children

アンポ ウタ
An=po utar
My children

アンレス クス
An=resu kusu
In order to raise them

トアニンマ タアニンマ 
Toaninma taaninma
Here and there

ケテケアン カネ 
Terketerke=an kane
I was flying about

パイェカイアン マ   
Payekay=an ma
I was walking about

アンポウタリ
An=poutari
My children

アンエレ クン ペ
An=ere kun pe
Something to feed them

アンエモマヌ ワ
An=emomasnu wa
I collected

アンルラ ワ
An=rura wa
I carried

アンポウタリ
An=poutari
My children

アンレス カネ オカヤン
An=resu kane okay=an.
I was raising.

English translation

I was living in village of Iskar, on the hill of the village.

The place I was living, was village of Iskar, on the hill of the village. I had lots of children, and in order to raise my children, I flied around and walked around here and there.

I collected things (which ought to) feed my children, carried them, and raised my children.

Exercises

There are no exercises for this lesson.

Vocabulary

 ア  A=  (Variant of An=)
 アワ  Awa  Where (Not interrogative)
 アン  An=  I
 アン  =An  I
 イ  Iskar  Ishikari (pn.)
 ウタ  Utar  Plural particle. "People" as an independent word.
 エトコ  Etoko  Hillside (genitive), base form etok.
 エモマ  Enomasnu  To collect, gather
 エレ  Ere  To feed
 オカヤン  Okay=an  Contraction of オカイ・アン (unchanged in Roman)
 カネ  Kane  While
 クス  Kusu  Because, in order to
 クン  Kun  Should, ought to do
 コタン  Kotan  Village
 コホラリ  Kohorari  To live in
 タアニンマ  Taaninma  To hither (Taani + un + wa)
 テケテ  Terketerke  To fly around. Terke by itself means "to jump"
 トアニンマ  Toaninma  To thither (Toani + un + wa)
 ハー  Ha-  (Opening sound)
 パイェカイ  Payekay  To walk around (pl.)
 パウ  Paw  (Onomatopoeia of a dying fox)
 ハエエエエエ  Haeeeee  (Meaning unknown)
 ペ  Pe  Nominalizer
 ポ  Po  Child
 ポウタリ  Poutari  Children (Genitive). Base form Poutar.
 ポコインネ  Pokoinne  To have many children. Po (children) + ko (to him/her) + inne (to be many)
 マ  Ma  And, while. Variant of Wa.
 ルラ  Rura  To carry
 レス  Resu  To raise
 ワ  Wa  And, while.

About Tuytak

Tuytak is a form of Ainu literature. This Tuytak was collected by Hiroshi Nakagawa (Chiba University) in 1985 from Ms. Yumi Okamoto. We only introduced the beginning lines here.

Tuytak is a tale where the gods tell their stories in the first person narrative. Gods appear as heroes in forms of various animals and birds, such as bear, rabbit, owl and crane. This form of narrative is generally known as shinyou (神謡) in Japanese. In Ainu, it is known as Tuytak in Samani and Urakawa, Kamuy Yukar from Shizunai to Western Iburi, Oyna in Tokachi, Kushiro and Asahikawa. (Generally known as "Yukar" in English.)

The word Tuytak is used in Tokachi, Kushiro and Asahikawa as well but there it means "Olden Tales." "Olden Tales" in Samani and Urakawa is Isoytatki, and Uwepeker in Iburi.

The refrain (Ainu: sakehe saha) "paw paw haeeeee" is repeated every line, and it is a characteristic of Tuytak. (Some of the lines in the text were combined to facilitate annotation) The refrain differs in different parts of the story.

The hero of this Tuytak is Pawsekamuy, a fox. This is very similar to the other tale collected by Shigeru Kayano in Biratori, which is published as 『キツネのチャランケ(Kitsune no Charanke) and is a well-known tale.

Grammar

So far we have learned the basics of Ainu language. This Tuytak may have been a bit too difficult and it is because the language of the oral literary tradition, Classical Ainu, differs from the Modern Colloquial Ainu.

For example, the first person singular pronominal is アン- an= or -アン =an instead of the familiar ク ku=. "I rest" in Modern Ainu is クシニ ku=nisi, but it is シニアン nisi=an in Classical Ainu. Notice that this =an looks same as the Colloquial =an for the first person plural. The independent pronoun differs as well, Classical pronoun for "I" is アノカイ Anokay instead of Colloquial クアニ kuani.

The plural forms of the nouns (cf. Lesson 10) are used not only for the plural subjects, but singular subject "I" as well in Classical Ainu. "I go" would be クオマン ku=oman in Colloquial, パイェアン paye=an in Classical.

Example: "I go down to the shore and catch fish"

Modern: クアニ アナ ピシ タ クサン マ チェ クコイキ。
Modern: Kuani anak pisi ta ku=san ma cep ku=koyki.
Classical: アノカイ アナ ピシ タ サアン マ チェ アンコイキ。
Classical: Anokay anak pisi ta sap=an ma cep an=koyki.

Literally: I (topic marker) shore (to) go down-(I) and fish (I)-catch.


Lesson 47: Where?

Sentences

チヌカ ネイ タ アン?
Cinukarkur ney ta an?
Where is Big Dipper?

ニサッタ エノン エチパイェ?
Nisatta enon eci=paye?
Where do you (pl.) go tomorrow?

Grammar

Ney ta is used to ask "where" a person or a thing is located, while enon is used to ask the destination of a movement. A related word onon is used to ask "from where."

Ney ta "Where" Locative
Enon "Whither" Allative
Onon "Whence" Ablative

オノン エチアキ?
Onon eci=arki?
Where do you come from? (pl.)

Enon is used in Shizunai, Eastern Hidaka and Tokachi areas. It may be hunakun, hinakun, neyne or newn in other regions.

Exercises

Exercises: Translate to Ainu

1) Where is your father?
2) Where do you want to go tomorrow?

Solutions

1) エコ アチャ ネイ タ アン E=kor aca ney ta an.
2) ニサッタ エノン エチパイエ ルスイ Nisatta enon eci=paye rusuy.

Vocabulary

 アン  An  To be
 ネイ  Ney  Where
 コ  Kor  To have, hold
 エ  E=  You
 アチャ  Aca  Father
 タ  Ta  Locative particle
 ルスイ  Rusuy  Desiderative particle
 エチ  Eci=  You (pl.)
 ニサッタ  Nisatta  Tomorrow
 パイェ  Paye  To go (pl.)
 エノン  Enon  Whither
 チヌカ  Cinukarkur  The Big Dipper. Made of ci=nukar=kur, "the one which we behold." The name comes from its function as a reference point to tell the directions.

Lesson 48: What?

Sentences

 エエ ルスイ?
Nep e=e rusuy?
What do you want to eat?

 カイ ケラアン クワ クエ  ルスイ。
Nep kay keraan kuwas ku=e rusuy.
I want to eat some tasty snacks.

Grammar

Nep is the basic interrogative to ask "what". It can form compounds with other particles as well, such as nep kay "something", nep kusu "for what- why" and nep ta an pe "something, for what reason" etc.

Kay is not used independently, and it is used after an abstract word: nep kay "something" (what-certain) or enon kay "somewhere" (what-place).

Exercises

Exercises: Translate to Ainu

1) What will you wear tomorrow?
2) Do you have some good ideas?

Solutions

1) ニサッタ ネ エミ ワ エオマン Nisatta nep e=mi wa e=oman.
2)  カイ ピカ サンニヨ エチコ ヤ Nep kay pirka sanniyo eci=kor ya.

Vocabulary

 ミ  Mi  To wear
 ネ  Nep  What (Interrogative). Hemanta in some dialects.
 エ  E=  You
 ワ  Wa  And
 ニサッタ  Nisatta  Tomorrow
 オマン  Oman  To go
 サンニヨ  Sanniyo  Thought, Idea
 ヤ  Ya  Interrogative particle
 ピ  Pirka  To be good
 エチ  Eci=  You (pl.)
 ネカイ  Nep kay  Something
 ク  Ku=  I
 クワ  Kuwas  Candy, snack. From Classical Japanese Kuwashi. Topenpe or Rurkorpe in some dialects.
 ケラアン  Keraan  To be tasty, to taste good
 ルスイ  Rusuy  Desiderative particle.

Lesson 49: "Even so.."

Sentences

アンミ ポロンノ エミ ヤッカイ エメウン ナンコ
Anmip poronno e=mi yakkay e=meun nankor.
You feel (lit. are) cold even if you wear a lot of clothes.

ニサッタ ウパ ア ヤッカイ モンライケア クス  ネ。
Nisatta upas as yakkay monrayke=as kusu ne.
We will (lit. are decided) to work even if it snows tomorrow.

Grammar

Yakkay is a conjunction placed after the subordinate clause to express "even if so…" or "despite that…", in a manner similar to korkay in lesson 39. Keep in mind that Ainu subordinate clauses come before the main clause.

Exercises

Exercises: Translate to Ainu

1) I am not even finding work.
2) I suppose my son doesn't run away even if I am angry.

Solutions

1) モンライケ クエタン ヤッカイ イサ Monrayke ku=estan yakkay isam.
2) クイルカ ヤッカイ クポホ ヘンネ キラ ナンコ Ku=iruska yakkay ku=poho henne kira nankor.

Vocabulary

 モンライケ  Monrayke  Work, to work
 イサ  Isam  Not to exist
 ク  Ku=  I
 エタン  Estan  To find, search
 キラ  Kira  To run away
 ポホ  Poho  Son (genitive)
 ナンコ  Nankor  Suppositional particle
 イル  Iruska  To be angry
 ヘンネ  Henne  Negation
 アシ  As  To fall
 アシ  =as  We (exclusive)
 アンミ  Anmip  Clothing.
 ウパ  Upas  Snow
 エ  E=  You
 クス  Kusu  Because. Kusu ne "intended/planned to do"
 ニサッタ  Nisatta  Tomorrow
 ネ  Ne  Copula (to be)
 ポロンノ  Poronno  A lot, many, much
 ミ  Mi  To wear
 メウン  Meun  To be cold. Merayke in some dialects.
 ヤッカイ  Yakkay  "Despite, even if." Yakka in some dialects.

Lesson 50: «Yayrap»

Text

ネコン イキ ワ nekon iki wa
...in what way

シク アワン ペ sikup awan pe
one who was born

アンネ イネ an=ne ine
I was, and

チオテコ ciorkusketo
in such a place

アトゥイソ カ タ atuyso ka ta
on the ocean

アン カネ mommon=an kane
floating and floating

オカアン マ oka=an ma
was, and

アコヤイヌパ a=koyaynupa
I noticed there

アヨロロペ ayororope
アヨロロペ ayororope
アヨロロペ ayororope

ネコニキ ワ  nekon iki wa
...in what way

シク アワン ペ sikup awan pe
one who was born

イパンネ キ テ ipan=ne ki tek
I was

タン ヌプ アトゥイ  tan nupur atuy
this great sea

アトゥイソ カ タ atuyso ka ta
on the ocean

アン カネ mommon=an kane
...floating and floating

オカヤン キ ワ okay=an ki wa
while I was

アコヤイヌパ a=koyaynupa
I noticed there.

English translation

I was one born in what way, (that I do not know). I was floating and floating on the ocean, and I noticed there. Ayororope, ayororope, ayororope. I was born in what way, (that I do not know), I was floating and floating on the great ocean, and I noticed there.

Exercises

There are no exercises for this lesson.

Vocabulary

 ア  A=  I. Variant of =an.
 アトゥイ  Atuy  Sea
 アトゥイソ  Atuyso  Open sea. So "wide area"
 アヨロロペ  Ayororope  (Has no meaning)
 アワン  Awan  And
 アン  An=  I
 アン  =An  I
 イキ  Iki  To do
 イネ  Ine  And
 イパン  Ipan=  I. (Appears only in tales)
 オカ  Oka  To be, to exist. Variant of Okay.
 カ  Ka  Above
 カネ  Kane  …ing, while
 キ  Ki  To do
 コヤyヌパ  Koyaynupa  To notice there.
 シク  Sikup  To grow up
 タ  Ta  Locative particle
 タン  Tan  This
 チシテコ  Ciorkusteko  In what way
 テ  Tek  And
 ヌプル  Nupur  Spiritually powerful, great. To be of deep color.
 ネ  Ne  Copula
 ネコニキ  Nekoniki  Contraction of ネコン イキ. (Change in Kana only)
 ネコン  Nekon  In what way
 ペ  Pe  Nominalizer
 マ  Ma  And. Variant of Wa.
 モ  Mommom  Floating and floating. Mom by itself is "to float"
 ワ  Wa  And

Grammar

This is a sample of a Yayrap, a heroic epic narrative orally transmitted in Samani area. This Yayrap was performed by Ms. Yumi Okamoto. It is a difficult task to sing Yayrap, one must practice to sing continuously for a prolonged time. The language itself is quite difficult as well, as it employs Classical Ainu.

This Yayrap begins with chanting ayororope between the lines, but it has no meaning, it just lets the listeners to know that the narrative begins. This occurs repeatedly between lines or phrases.


End Of Part Ten

This is the end of part ten. You can continue with part XI of this course.

Continue to part XI

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