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Ainu for Beginners - Part 5

Lesson 21: Independent Pronoun "I" (2)

Sentences

クアニ アナ テレビ クヌカ
Kuani anak Terebi ku=nukar.
I watch TV.

クアニ アナネ ポロ ウンマ クオ。
Kuani anakne poro umma ku=o.
I ride a big horse.

Grammar

The independent pronoun kuani may be used by itself, but it is more often accompanied by the topic marker particle anak or anakne, which were introduced in lesson 12. This is used to emphasise the subject of the sentence, it is "I" who is watching the TV (while the others might be doing other things). There is an implied sense of relativity.

Pay attention to the pronominal affix ku as well, it has to be used in all cases.

 ・ I watch TV.
  ○ クアニ アナネ テレビ クヌカkuani anakne terebi ku=nukar.
  × ク   アナネ テレビ  ヌカku anakne terebi nukar.
  × クアニ アナネ テレビ  ヌカkuani anakne terebi nukar.
  ○          テレビ クヌカterebi ku=nukar.

 ・ I ride a big horse.
  ○ クアニ アナ ポロ ウンマ クオ。 Kuani anak poro umma ku=o.
  × クアニ アナ ポロ ウンマ  オ。 Kuani anak poro umma o.
  × ク   アナ ポロ ウンマ  オ。 Ku anak poro umma o.
  ○         ポロ ウンマ クオ。 Poro umma ku=o.

Anak and anakne are mutually interchangeable. The additional ne is thought to be derived from the copula ne.

Exercises

Exercises: Translate to Ainu

1) I am listening to radio.
2) I come from Sapporo.

Solutions

1) クアニ アナク ラジオ クヌ Kuani anak Radio ku=nu.
2) クアニ アナネ サッポロ ワ クエ Kuani anakne Satporo wa ku=ek.

Vocabulary

 ク  Ku=  I
 ラジオ  Rajio  Radio
 アナ  Anak  Topic marker
 ヌ  Nu  To hear, listen to
 クアニ  Kuani  I
 アナ  Anakne  Topic marker
 サッポロ  Satporo  Sapporo
 ワ  Wa  From
 エ  Ek  To come
 ウンマ  Umma  Horse (from Japanese 馬 uma.)
 テレビ  Terebi  Television. (from Japanese)
 ヌカ  Nukar  To look, watch
 ポロ  Poro  Big
 オ  O  To ride

Lesson 22: Independent Pronoun "You" (sg.)

Sentences

エアニ チエ エコイキ。
Eani cep e=koyki.
You catch a fish.

エアニ アナ アナウンサー エネ。
Eani anak Anaunsa e=ne.
You are an announcer.

Grammar

Eani is the independent pronoun for the second person singular, analogous to kuani. The corresponding pronominal suffix for it is e=, which must be present even when eani is used.

Exercises

Exercises: Translate to Ainu

1) You drink beer.
2) You are a boy.

Solutions

1) エアニ ビール エ Eani Beer e=ku.
2) エアニ アナネ ヘカチ エネ Eani anakne hekaci e=ne.

Vocabulary

 ビール  Biru  Beer. (a Dutch loanword in Japanese)
 ク  Ku  To drink
 エ  E=  You
 エアニ  Eani  You
 ネ  Ne  Copula
 アナクネ  Anakne  Topic marker
 ヘカチ  Hekaci  Boy, young man
 アナウンサー  Anaunsa  Announcer. (from Japanese)
 アナ  Anak  Topic marker
 コイキ  Koyki  To take, catch, annoy, pile.
 チェ  Cep  Fish

Lesson 23: Connector "wa" (1)

Sentences

ルヤンペ ア ワ ル テイネ
Ruyanpe as war u teyne.
Rain fell and the road is wet.

ヘリコプター エ ワ ヘカッタ ウウェカパ。
Herikiputa ek wa hekattar uwekarpa.
A helicopter came and the children gathered.

Grammar

Wa is a connector which links two sentences together, best translated as "and" in English. A more literal translation of the first sentence would be "the road became wet as it was raining", and a sense of spontaneity is implied. Wa can become ma after a word ending in n or m.

サク アン マ シセセ
Sak an ma sirsesek.
Summer came and it became hot.

メアン マ クテケ ヤ
Mean ma ku=teke yam.
It became cold and my hand is cold.

Exercises

Exercises: Translate to Ainu

1) Wind blows and the wave is rough.
2) Father is angry and the daughter cries.

Solutions

1) レラ シ ワリ ユケ Rera as wa rir yupke.
2) アチャ イルカ ワ マッネポ チシ Aca iruska wa matnepo cis.

Vocabulary

 ワ  Wa  "And"
 リ  Rir  Sea wave
 アシ  As  To blow, fall
 レラ  Rera  Wind
 ユ  Yupke  Strong, rough
 チ  Cis  To cry
 アチャ  Aca  Father
 マッネポ  Matnepo  Daughter
 イル  Iruska  To be angry
 ウウェカ  Uwekarpa  To gather
 エ  Ek  To come
 テイネ  Teyne  To become wet
 ヘカッタ  Hekattar  Children
 ヘリコプター  Herikoputa  Helicopter (from Japanese)
 ル  Ru  Road, pathway
 ルヤンペ  Ruyanpe  Rain

Lesson 24: Connector "wa" (2)

Sentences

コンドル ホプニ ワ オマン。
Kondoru hopuni wa oman.
Condor flew and went.

トノト クホ ワ クエ
Tonoto ku=hok wa ku=ek.
I bought alcohol and came.

Grammar

Wa as a connector in lesson 23 was translated as "and". It is also used to describe a sequence of actions: a condor first flies and goes somewhere and I buy alcohol and comes back. Note that the example sentences are both translated in the past tense. Ainu verbs have no time tense, and it is customary to translate them into the past tense unless the time is specified otherwise. Not everyone agrees with this convention, and it is up to the translator to translate them as one sees fit.

Exercises

Exercises: Translate to Ainu

1) Uncle rode the car and went.
2) I walked a lot and became tired.

Solutions

1) アチャポ 車 オ ワ オマン Acapo Kuruma o wa oman.
2) ポロンノ クア ワ クシンキ Poronno ku=apkas wa ku=sinki.

Vocabulary

 ワ  Wa  "And"
 オマン  Oman  To go
 オ  O  To ride
 アチャポ  Acapo  Uncle
 車(クルマ)  Kuruma  Car (from Japanese)
 ク  Ku=  I
 ア  Apkas  To walk
 ポロンノ  Poronno  A lot, many, much
 シンキ  Sinki  To come
 エ  Ek  To come
 コンドル  Kondoru  Condor
 トノト  Tonoto  Alcoholic drink
 ホ  Hok  To buy
 ホプニ  Hopuni  To fly, to wake up from sleep

Lesson 25: Imperative

Sentences

コタ オマン。
Emkota oman.
Go quickly.

ワッカタ ワ エ
Wakkata wa ek.
Ladle water and come.

Grammar

There are no special verb forms for the imperative in Ainu, and it is formed by using the base form of the verb without the pronominal affix.

Exercises

Exercises: Translate to Ainu

1) Go to the railway tomorrow.
2) Get up quickly and wash the face.

Solutions

1) ニサッタ クス エン オマン Nisatta kusur en oman.
2) コタ ホプニ ワ ヤケ Emkota hopuni wa yaske.

Vocabulary

 クス  Kusur  Railway
 オマン  Oman  To go
 エン  En  "To" Allative case particle.
 ニサッタ  Nisatta  Tomorrow
 エコタ  Emkota  Quickly, early
 ホプニ  Hopuni  To wake up, rise
 ワ  Wa  "And"
 ヤ  Yaske  To wash face
 エ  Ek  To come
 ワッカタ  Wakkata  To ladle water. Wakka (water) + ta (ladle)

End Of Part Five

This is the end of part five. You can continue with part VI of this course.

Continue to part VI

Thanks for your interest in this course! If you discovered any mistakes or you just want to say something then please let us know . We do need feedback!

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