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Ainu for Beginners - Part 6

Lesson 26: Negation

Sentences

フチ ヘンネ モコ
Huci henne mokor.
Grandmother doesn't sleep.

タパンペ シタ ヘンネ ネ。
Tapanpe sita henne ne.
This is not a dog.

Grammar

Ainu word of negation is henne, whether it is not or it does not. Henne comes before the verb it negates. It does not affect the pronominal affixes, and they must be present in the verb in negation as well. The above two sentences show no affixes as the third person is marked by the absence of the affix. The pronominal affixes will be present in the first and second person, such as henne ku=oman (I don’t come) and henne e=nukar (you don’t see).

Henne may be used in a manner similar to English un (as in undo) or im/in (as in impossible). Henne pirka would mean something is not good.

Exercises

Exercises: Translate to Ainu

1) My father is not having a meal.
2) You are not a man.

Solutions

1) クコ アチャ ヘンネ イペ Ku=kor aca henne ipe.
2) エアニ アナ オッカイ ヘンネ エネ Eani anak okay henne e=ne.

Vocabulary

 イペ  Ipe  To have, eat a meal
 ク  Ku=  I
 アチャ  Aca  Father
 ヘンネ  Henne  Negation
 コ  Kor  To have, hold
 エ  E=  You
 ネ  Ne  Copula
 エアニ  Eani  You
 アナ  Anak  Topic marker
 オッカイ  Okkay  Man, male
 シタ  Sita  Dog
 タパンペ  Tapanpe  This
 フチ  Huci  Grandmother
 モコ  Mokor  To sleep

Lesson 27: Genitive (1)

Sentences

タパン ケ アナ クケリヒ ネ。
Tapan ker anak ku=kerihi ne.
These shoes are my shoes.

エナエフ ソンノ ピカ。
E=nanuhu sonno pirka.
Your face is very beautiful.

Grammar

The word ker in the first sentence means a pair of shoes in its base form, and kerihi is the genitive form of it. The shoes and other cloth items attached immediately on the body is considered to be inalienable, so it takes the pronominal suffixes ku= or e=, and either ker or kerihi is permissible in the third person, which takes no pronominal suffix. (unarpe ker/kerihi, "aunt’s shoes") Notice that Ainu genitive applies to the item which is possessed, not the possessor.

Not all Ainu nouns have this genitive forms. The nouns which have genitive parts include body parts, clothing, animals, plants and tools. Nichihi in makiri nicihi "grip of a small blade" is the genitive of nit, "grip", and nanuhu in the second sentence above is "face of", whose base form is nan.

More examples:

 Nominal  Genitive
 キサ  Kisar  Ear  キサラ, キサラハ  Kisara, Kisaraha  Ear of…
 アサ  Asam  Bottom  アサマ、アサマハ  Asama, Asamaha  Bottom of…
 エト  Etop  Hair  エトピ、エトピヒ  Etopi, Etopihi  Hair of…
 シ  Sik  Eye  シキ、シキヒ  Siki, Sikihi  Eye of…
 レ  Rek  Beard  レキ、レキヒ  Reki, Rekihi  Beard of…
 ピ  Pir  Wound  ピリ、ピリヒ  Piri, Pirihi  Wound of…
 ク  Kur  Shadow  クリ、クリヒ  Kuri, Kurihi  Shadow of…
 フ  Hum  Sound  フミ、フミヒ  Humi, Humihi  Sound of…
 マッ  Mat  Wife  マツ、マツヒ  Matu, Matuhi  Wife of…
 ナン  Nan  Face  ナヌ、ナヌフ  Nanu, Nanuhu  Face of…
 ラ  Rap  Leaf  ラプ、ラプフ  Rapu, Rapuhu  Leaf of…
 カ  Kap  Hand  カプ、カプフ  Kapu, Kapuhu  Hand of…
 ハ  Ham  Voice  ハム、ハムフ  Hamu, Hamuhu  Voice of…
 テ  Tek  Hand  テケ、テケヘ  Teke, Tekehe  Hand of…
 ハウ  Haw  Voice  ハウェ、ハウェヘ  Hawe, Hawehe  Voice of…
 アタイ  Atai  Price  アタイェ、アタイェヘ  Ataye, Atayehe  Price of…
 チャ  Car  Mouth  チャロ、チャロホ  Caro, Caroho  Mouth of…
 オソ  Osor  Hip  オソロ、オソロホ  Osoro, Osoroho  Hip of…

Exercises

Exercises: Translate to Ainu

1) Your eyes are small.
2) My legs are slim.

Solutions

1) エシキヒ ポン E=sikihi pon.
2) クチキリヒ ソンノ アネ Ku=cikirihi sonno ane.

Vocabulary

 シキヒ  Sikihi  Eye of…
 エ  E=  You
 ポン  Pon  Small
 アネ  Ane  Slim, narrow
 チキリヒ  Cikirihi  Leg of…
 ソンノ  Sonno  Very, truly
 ク  Ku=  I
 アナ  Anak  Topic marker
 ケリヒ  Kerihi  Shoes of…
 ケ  Ker  Shoes
 タパン  Tapan  This
 ナヌフ  Nanuhu  Face of…
 ネ  Ne  Copula
 ピ  Pirka  Beautiful, good

Lesson 28: Genitive (2)

Sentences

クコ アチャポ エトゥフ ポロ。
Ku=kor acapo etuhu poro.
My uncle's nose is big.

クマッネポ エトピ フレ。
Ku=matnepo etopi hure.
My daugter's hair is red.

Grammar

Etuhu in the ` of etu, meaning "nose of…" Certain nouns such as body parts can be possessed without being in genitive as well, so e=etu and e=etuhu are both acceptable. This applies to family members as well, so matnepo in the second sentence becomes either ku=matnepo or ku=matnepoho.

 Nominal  Genitive  English
 フラ  Hura  フラ、フラハ  Hura, Huraha  Smell
 ケラ  Kera  ケラ、ケラハ  Kera, Keraha  Taste
 トゥサ  Etu  トゥサ、トゥサハ  Tusa, Tusaha  Sleeve
 パ  Pa  パ、パハ  Pa, Paha  Year
 チンキ  Cinki  チンキ、チンキヒ  Cinki, Cinkihi  Lower end of a clothing
 ホ  Hok  ホ、ホクフ  Hok, Hokuhu  Husband
 エトゥ  Etu  エトゥ、エトゥフ  Etu, Etuhu  Nose
 チセ  Cise  チセ、チセヘ  Cise, Cisehe  House, home
 パケ  Pake  パケ、パケヘ  Pake, Pakehe  Head
 レ  Re  レ、レヘ  Re, Rehe  Name
 ポ  Po  ポ、ポホ  Po, Poho  Child, son
 マッネポ  Matnepo  マッネポ、マッネポホ  Matnepo, Matnepoho  Daughter
 ミッポ  Mitpo  ミッポ、ミッポホ  Mitpo, Mitpoho  Grandchild
 ト  To  ト、トホ  To, Toho  Day

The genitives ending with p, t, k, s, m, r, n, y, w, or in Katakana, small ク, プ, ッ, シ, ム, リ, ル or ン, イ, ウ undergo vowel changes in genitive, as they were presented in the last lesson. The other words that end with a vowel get genitive affixes after them. ha after the nouns ending with -a, hi after -i, hu after -u, he after -e and ho after -o .

Exercises

Exercises: Translate to Ainu

1) The smell of ramsons is strong.
2) My dog is smart. (lit. "to have a good head.")

Solutions

1) プク アナ フラハ ルイ Puksa anak huraha ruy.
2) クコ シタ パケ ピカ Ku=kor sita pake pirka.

Vocabulary

 アナ  Anak  Topic marker
 ルイ  Ruy  Strong
 プクサ  Pukusa  Ramsons
 フラハ  Huraha  Smell of…
 ク  Ku  I
 ピ  Pirka  Good, beautiful
 パケ  Pake  Head
 シタ  Sita  Dog
 コ  Kor  To have, hold
 アチャポ  Acapo  Uncle
 エトゥフ  Etohu  Nose of…
 エトピ  Etopi  Hair of…
 フレ  Hure  Red
 ポロ  Poro  Big
 マッネポ  Matnepo  Daughter

Lesson 29: Nominalizer

Grammar

Ainu nominalizers pe and p are attached at the end of the word to make nouns. They roughly correspond to the English affixes like –ness (after noun), -ing (after verb), -ity (after adjective or adverb), -er (after person), etc. Ainu nominalizers are more general, it could also be used to create a place name "place where … occurs."

Pe is used after words that end with a small Katakana, or p, t, k, s, m, r, n, y or w in Roman Ainu. (Or, anything else than a, e, i, o, u.)

Examples:

 イタ  Itakpe  Thing which speaks
 アプカ  Apkaspe  Thing which walks
 イサムペ  Isampe  Thing which doesn’t exist
 レタ  Retarpe  Thing which is white
 ポンペ  Ponpe  Thing which is small
 オカイペ  Okaype  Things which are

P is used after the words that end with a big Katakana (including イェ or ウォ) or a, e, i, o, u in Roman Ainu.

 シニ  Sinip  Thing which rests
 ピ  Pirikap  Thing which is good
 テ  Terkep  Thing which jumps
 リ  Rimsep  Thing which dances
 ワッカク  Wakkakup  Thing which drinks water
 クイェ  Ku=yep  "I", "whom I call myself"

Exercises

Exercises: Translate to Ainu

1) There are lots of tasty things.
2) This obon is a thing that my uncle carved.

Solutions

1) ケラアン ペ ポロンノ オカイ Keraan pe poronno okay.
2) タパン イタ アナ アチャポ ヌイエ ネ Tapan ita anak acapo nuyep ne.

Vocabulary

 ポロンノ  Poronno  A lot, much, many
 ケラアン  Keraan  Tasty
 オカイ  Okay  To be (pl.)
 アチャポ  Acapo  Uncle
 タパン  Tapan  This
 ヌイェ  Nuye  To carve
 イタ  Ita  Obon (Lanton Festival)
 アナ  Anak  Topic marker
 イェ  Ye  To call
 エ  E=  You
 ク  Ku=  I
 自転車(ジテンシャ)  Zitensha  Bicycle
 タパン  Tapan  This
 ネ  Ne  Copula
 ピ  Pirka  Good, beautiful, right
   P  Nominalizer
 ペ  Pe  Nominalizer
 ホ  Hok  To buy

Lesson 30: "You do.." (pl.)

Sentences

エチミナ。
Eci=mina.
You laugh. (pl.)

チェコイキク エチネ。
Cepkoykikur eci=ne.
You are fishers. (pl.)

Grammar

Eci= is the second person plural pronominal suffix. Like all pronominal affixes, eci= can never occur independently.

You are eating meat. (pl.)
  × エチ カ   エ。 Eci kam e.
  ○    カ エチエ。 Kam eci=e.

Eci= is also used to denote the genitive relationships, that something belongs to "those of you."

エチテケ/エチテケヘ
eci=teke / eci=tekehe "your hands"

エチケ/エチケリヒ
eci=ker / eci=kerihi "your shoes"

エチケウトゥ/エチケウトゥ
eci=keutum / eci=keutumhu "your hearts"

Exercises

Exercises: Translate to Ainu

1) You (pl.) walk a lot.
2) I see your heads.

Solutions

1) ポロンノ エチア Poronno eci=apkas.
2) エチナヌフ クヌカ Eci=nanuhu ku=nukar.

Vocabulary

 アプカ  Apkas  To walk
 ポロンノ  Poronno  A lot, many, much
 エチ  Eci  You (pl.)
 ヌカ  Nukar  To see
 ク  Ku  I
 ナヌフ  Nanuhu  Head of…
 チェコイキク  Cepkoykikur  Fisher
 ネ  Ne  Copula
 ミナ  Mina  To laugh

End Of Part Six

This is the end of part six. You can continue with part VII of this course.

Continue to part VII

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