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Ainu for Beginners - Part 9

Lesson 41: "Let us.." (2)

Sentences

ポロリセ アンキ ノ。
Pororimse an=ki no.
Let us dance pororimse.

ヤマウ アンカ ワ アンエ ノ。
Yamaw an=kar wa an=e no.
Let us make yamaw and eat.

Pororimse, known as Waodori in Japanese, is a traditional dance in a circle after a festival. The Ainu word pororimse literally means "Great Dance", and the Japanese waodori means "Circled Dance." Yawaw is a traditional Ainu dish, which literally means "cold (yam) soup (ohaw)."

Grammar

The suggestive sentences used in Lesson 40 with particle no were all intransitive, and the pronominal affix =an was placed after the verb. However, when the sentence takes an object and the verb made transitive, then the affix is placed before the verb as an=. The pronominal affix can never be omitted.

"Let us watch a movie"
○ 映画 アンヌカ ノ。 Eiga an=nukar no.
× 映画   ヌカ ノ。 Eiga nukar no.

In addition, no may cause a sound change in the preceding word. If the preceding word ends with a small Katakana ラリルレロ or an r in Roman Ainu, this r is dropped and nasalized as ン(n) to ease the pronunciation.

アンカ ノ An=kar no "Let us make..."
-> アンカン ノ An=kan no
アンヌル ノ An=nukar no "Let us see..."
-> アンヌカン ノ An=nukan no

Exercises

Exercises: Translate to Ainu

1) Let's ride metro.
2) Let's go to Tomakomai and find a cheap room.

Solutions

1) 地下鉄 アンオ ノ Chikatetsu an=o no.
2) トマコマイ エン パイェアン ワ アタイサ トゥンプ アンエタン ノ Tomakomai en paye=an wa ataysak tumpu an=estan no

Vocabulary

 オ  O  To ride
 アン  An=  We
 ノ  No  Suggestive
 地下鉄(チカテツ)  Chikatetsu  Metro, subway
 トゥンプ  Tumpu  Room
 トマコマイ  Tomakomai  Tomakomai (pn.)
 エン  En  To, towards
 パイェ  Paye  To go (pl.)
 アタイサ  Ataysak  To be cheap
 エタン  Estan  To find, search
 ワ  Wa  And
 エ  E  To eat
 カ  Kar  To make
 キ  Ki  To do

Lesson 42: Particle "na"

Sentences

タント メアン ナ。
Tanto mean na.
Today is cold.

カンピソ ポロンノ クコ ナ。
Kampisos poronno ku=kor na.
I have a lot of books.

カンピソ kampisos "book" is a compound noun made of kampi "paper" and sos, a rarely used word for collection of flimsy materials. Some speakers may just say "hon" () as a Japanese loanword.

Grammar

The assurance particle na does not carry any semantic meaning, and the above examples make sense even if na is removed. This is used when the speaker provides information which the speaker wants the listener to pay attention: cf. "You know, it’s cold outside." This roughly corresponds to Japanese particle yo.

Like no from lesson 41, na may cause a sound change if the preceding word ends in small Katakana ラリルレロ or an r. R in the preceding word is then nasalized and becomes ン / n.

クコ ナ -> クコン ナ
ku=kor na -> ku=kon na

Exercises

Exercises: Translate to Ainu

1) This melon is cheap but tastes good (and I assure you)
2) As for me, I understand Ainu language a little (so that you know)

Solutions

1) タパン メロン アタイサ コカイ ケラアン ナ Tapan Melon ataysak korkay keraan na.
2) クアニ アナ アイヌイタ ポンノ クエラムアン ナ Kuani anak aynuitak ponno ku=eramuan na.

Vocabulary

 アタイサ  Ataysak  To be cheap
 タパン  Tapan  This
 ナ  Na  Assurance particle
 メロン  Meron  Melon
 コカイ  Korkay  Although
 ケラアン  Keraan  To taste good, to be tasty
 ク  Ku=  I
 アナ  Anak  Topic marker
 アイヌイタ  Ainuitak  Ainu language
 エラムアン  Eramuan  To understand
 クアニ  Kuani  I
 ポンノ  Ponno  A little
 コ  Kor  To have, hold
 タント  Tanto  Today
 ポロンノ  Poronno  A little
 メアン  Mean  To be cold

Lesson 43: Particle "ya"

Sentences

鉛筆 エコ ヤ?
Enpitsu e=kor ya?
Do you have a pencil?

ウクラン イメル アッ ヤ?
Ukuran imeru at ya?
Did lightning strike last night?

At is "to appear" or "occur", such as light, smoke, smell or gas. It is also found in compound nouns such as urarat "to become misty", huraat "to become fragrant", nupekiat "light appears, shine" or supyaat "smoke appears."

Imeru is "lightening", as opposed to kamuyhum , "thunder". It is made of i "that (of god)" and meru "brightness."

Grammar

Ya is an interrogative particle attached at the end of the sentence to make it a question, roughly corresponding to Japanese ka. This can be omitted if you just raise the tone at the end of the sentence.

ワッカ エク? Wakka e=ku?
You drink water?

アイヌイタ エチエランペテAinu itak eci=eranpetek?
You (pl.) know Ainu language?

Exercises

Exercises: Translate to Ainu

1) Is your aunt's house big?
2) Do you (pl.) work every day? (lit. Do you be while working every day?)

Solutions

1) エコ ウナペ チセヘ ポロ ヤ E=kor unarpe cisehe poro ya.
2) ト エチモンライケ カネ エチオカイ ヤ Kesto eci=monrayke kane eci=okay ya.

Vocabulary

 コ  Kor  To have, hold
 ヤ  Ya  Interrogative particle
 ポロ  Poro  To be big
 ウナ  Unarpe  Aunt
 エ  E=  You (sg.)
 シセヘ  Cisehe  Home, house (genitive)
 カネ  Kane  While
 ケ  Kesto  Everyday
 モンライケ  Monrayke  To work
 エチ  Eci=  You (pl.)
 オカイ  Okay  Copula (pl.)
 オクラン  Ukuran  Last night, yesterday evening
 鉛筆(エンピツ)  Enpitsu  Pencil

Lesson 44: Particle "rusuy"

Sentences

アルバイト クキ ルスイ。
Arbeit ku=ki rusuy.
I want to get (lit. "do") a part time job.

モッペ エン パイェア ルスイ。
rurmotpe en paye=as rusuy.
We want to go to Rumoi.

Grammar

Rusuy is a desiderative particle, roughly translated as "to want to do something." Without rusuy, the example sentences mean "I do a part time job" and "we go to Rumoi."

Rusuy is often used in compound words as well, as in iperusuy "to be hungry" (lit. to want to dine), mokonrusuy "to be sleepy" (lit. to want to sleep) and konrusuy "to want to have." Notice the sound changes of mokor and kor to mokon and kon here.

Exercises

Exercises: Translate to Ainu

1) I want to buy a new watch.
2) Do you want to go to Sakhalin?

Solutions

1) アシ 時計 クホ ルスイ Asir Tokei ku=hok rusuy.
2) エチオカイ カラト エン エチパイエ ルスイ ヤ Eciokay Karapto en eci=paye rusuy ya.

Vocabulary

 ホ  Hok  To buy, purchase
 アシ  Asir  To be new
 ク  Ku=  I
 ルスイ  Rusuy  Desiderative particle
 時計(トケイ)  Tokei  Watch
 エン  En  To, towards
 ヤ  Ya  Interrogative particle
 パイェ  Paye  To go (pl.)
 エチ  Eci=  You (pl.)
 カラ  Karapto  Karafuto, Sakhalin (pn.)
 エチオカイ  Eciokay  You (pl.)
 ア  =as  We (exclusive)
 アルバイト  Arubaito  A part-time job, from German "Arbeit"
 キ  Ki  To do
 ルモッペ  Rurmotpe  Rumoi (pn.) Rur "ocean", mo "silence", ot "to be", pe "place." "Where the silence of ocean is"

Lesson 45: Particle "kusu"

Sentences

ソンノ メアン クス ワッカ ルプ
Sonno mean kusu wakka rupus.
Water froze because it is very cold.

スキー チキ クス パイェア ルスイ。
Ski ci=ki kusu paye=as rusuy.
We want to go to ski.

Grammar

Kusu is a causal particle attached at the end of the clause. Water froze because the weather was cold, and we want to go in order to (or, "because") we ski. Note that the word order is different from English: "A because B" would translate as "B kusu A" in Ainu. B is the reason or goal, and A is the reason. Keep in mind that the subordinate clause comes before the main clause in Ainu.

A common expression using kusu includes "… kusu ne." Literally it would mean "because it is so...", but in idiomatic usage this means "I am going to / planning to do."

Example:

韓国 エン クオマン クス ネ。
Kankoku en ku=oman kusu ne.
I am going to Korea. (I have planned to do so.)

In the second sentence you find ci= and =as used in the same sentence. They are both first person plural exclusive pronominal affixes, that the "we" does not include the listener. Ki takes transitive ci= because it has an object (ski), while paye doesn't because there is no destination (object) specified, thus intransitive =as.

Exercises

Exercises: Translate to Ainu

1) Now I'm going back because I am tired.
2) We want to go to Hawaii for surfing.

Solutions

1) クシンキ クス タネ クホシピ Ku=sinki kusu tane ku=hosipi.
2) サーフィン チキ クス ハワイ エン パイエア ルスイ Surfing ci=ki kusu Hawaii en=paye as rusuy.

Vocabulary

 ク  Ku=  I
 クス  Kusu  Causal particle
 ホシピ  Hosipi  To return
 タネ  Tane  Now
 シンキ  Sinki  Tired
 アシ  =As  We (intransitive exclusive)
 ハワイ  Hawai  Hawaii
 サーフィン  Safin  Surfing
 エン  En  To, towards
 ルスイ  Rusuy  Desiderative particle
 チ  Ci=  We (transitive exclusive)
 スキー  Suki  Ski. Ski was used by Sakhalin Ainu to move around in the snow-piled mountains, but it is unlikely that it was so in Hokkaido.
 ソンノ  Sonno  Very, truly
 メアン  Mean  To be cold
 ルプ  Rupus  To freeze
 ワッカ  Wakka  Water

End Of Part Nine

This is the end of part nine. You can continue with part X of this course.

Continue to part X

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