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The Four Latin Languages
Los Cuatro Idiomas Latinos
As Quatro Linguas Latinas
Le Quattre Lingue Latine
Les Quatre Langues Latines
Español (ES) Spanish
Português (PT) Portuguese
Italiano (IT) Italian
Français (FR) French

by Maarten van Gompel (Proycon)

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Abbreviations used in this document:
m = masculine, f = feminine, n = neuter/unknown, s = singular, p = plural
F = Formal,[cons.]=consonant,[c] = consonant,[v] = vowel,! = must be stressed
. = must be unstressed


This document provides you with a detailed grammar reference of the four most important latin languages: Spanish, Portuguese, Italian and French. This is quite a technical document and most grammar constructions are represented in compact schemes. However, anyone who has a clear understanding of grammar in general should be able to use this document. It can be used both as to study one of the four latin languages as well as to read a reference.

For a content listing look at the end of this document...


Feel free to use this information for any NON-COMMERCIAL purpouse... Don't remove any credits or license information in further development or presentation. I'd also appreciate if you send me a copy if you modify this document. However there's no guarantee that all information in this document is correct. This document comes with no guarantees whatsoever..Please be so kind to report any errors to proycon@unilang.org so they can be removed in future editions.


Subject Pronouns
1s yo eu io je
2s tu tu tu
3ms él ele lui il
3fs ella ela lei elle
3ns ello
3sF usted você Lei vous
1p nosotros nós noi nous
2p vosotros vós voi vous
3mp ellos eles loro ils
3fp ellas elas loro elles
3pF ustedes vocês Loro vous
Object Pronouns
1s me me mi me
2s te te ti te
3ms le o lo le
3fs la a la la
3ns lo
3sF le/la/lo o/a La vous
1p nos nos ci nous
2p os vos vi vous
3mp les os li les
3fp las as le les
3np los
3pF les/las/los os/as Li,Le vous
Indirect Object Pronouns
1s me me mi me
2s te te ti te
3ms le lhe gli lui
3fs le lhe le lui
3ns le
3sF le lhe Le vous
1p nos nos ci nous
2p os vocês vi vous
3mp les lhes gli/loro leur
3fp les lhes gli/loro leur
3np les
3pF les lhes Gli/Loro vous
Prepositional Pronouns
1s mim me moi
2s ti ti te toi
3ms él ele lui lui
3fs ella ela lei elle
3ns ello
3sF usted você Lei vous
1p nosotros nós noi nous
2p vosotros vós voi vous
3mp ellos eles loro eux
3fp ellas elas loro elles
3pF ustedes vocês Loro vous


Definite Articles
ms el o il
lo [z,s+cons.]
fs la a la
mp los os i
gli [vowel]
gli [z,s+cons.]
fp las as le les
Indefinite Articles
ms un um un
uno [z,s+cons.]
fs una uma una
mp unos uns des
fp unas umas des
Partitive Articles
ms del
dell' [vowel]
dello [z,s+cons.]
fs della
de la
de l'[vowel]
mp dei
degli [vowel]
degli [z,s+cons.]
fp delle des


Noun Gender
m -O
-O -O -EAU
f -A
? -E -[others]
Plural Nouns
-[c],y -> +ES
-[v] -> +S
-Z -> -CES
-[c] -> +ES
-[v] -> +S
-S. -> [unchanged]
-AL -> -AIS
-EL -> -ÉIS
-OL -> -ÓIS
-IL -> -IS
-O -> -I
-A -> -E
-I -> [unchanged]
-E -> -I
-IO! -> -II
-CO -> -CHI
-GO -> -GHI
-CA -> -CHE(f),-CHI(m)
-GA -> -GHE(f),-GHI(m)
-[c] -> [unchanged]
-[v]! -> [unchanged]
-CI!A -> -CIE
-GI!A -> -GIE
-CIA. -> -CE
-GIA. -> -GE
-AU -> +X
-EU -> +X
-OU -> +X
-S -> [unchanged]
-Z -> [unchanged]
-X -> [unchanged]
-AL -> -AUX
-AIL -> -AUX
[others] -> +S


ms -O -> -O
-E -> -E
-OR -> -OR
-ÁN -> -ÁN
-ÍN -> -ÍN
-ÓN -> -óN
-[c] -> -[c]
-O -> -O -O -> -O
-E -> -E
-IO -> IO
-E -> -E
-EL -> -EL
-EN -> -EN
-EUX -> -EUX
-ER -> -ER
-F -> -F
-ON -> -ON
[others] -> [unchanged]
fs -O -> -A
-E -> -E
-OR -> -ORA
-ÁN -> -ÁNA
-ÓN -> -ÓNA
-ÍN -> -ÍNA
-[c] -> -[c]
-O -> -A -O -> -A
-E -> -E
-IO -> -IA
-E -> -E
-EL -> -ELLE
-EN -> -ENNE
-ER -> -ÈRE
-F -> -VE
-ON -> -ONNE
[others] -> +E
mp -O -> -OS
-E -> -ES
-OR -> -ORES
-ÁN -> -ÁNES
-ÓN -> -ÓNES
-ÍN -> -ÍNES
-[c] -> +ES
-O -> -OS -O -> -I
-E -> -I
-IO -> -I
-E -> -ES
-EL -> -ELS
-EN -> -ENS
-EUX -> -EUX
-ER -> -ERS
-F -> -FS
-ON -> -ONS
[others] -> +S
fp -O -> -AS
-E -> -ES
-OR -> -ORAS
-[c] -> +ES
-ÁN -> -ÁNAS
-ÓN -> -ÓNAS
-ÍN -> -ÍNAS
-O -> -AS -O -> -E
-E -> -I
-IO -> -IE
-E -> -ES
-ER -> -ÈRES
-F -> -VES
[others] -> +ES


Converting Adjectives to Adverbs
[c] -> +MENTE
-[v]LE -> -MENTE
-[v]RE -> -MENTE
[v] -> +MENT
[c] -> +EMENT


Degrees of Comparison
comperative más mais più plus
superlative (el/la) más (o/a) mais (il/la) più (le/la) plus
comp. minor menos menos meno moins
supl. minor (el/la) menos (o/a) menos (il/la) meno (le/la) moins
Comparisons of Equality and Inequality
equality tan...como tão...como tanto...quanto aussi...que
inquality ...que... ...do que... ...che... ...que...


Possessive Adjectives
1s mi (ms)
mi (fs)
mis (mp)
mis (fp)
o meu (ms)
a minha (fs)
os meus (mp)
as minhas (fp)
il mio (ms)
la mia (fs)
i miei (mp)
le mie (fp)
mon (ms)
ma (fs)
mes (mp)
mes (fp)
2s tu (ms)
tu (fs)
tus (mp)
tus (fp)
o teu (ms)
a tua (fs)
os teus (mp)
as tuas (fp)
il tuo (ms)
la tua (fs)
i tuoi (mp)
le tue (fp)
ton (ms)
ta (fs)
tes (mp)
tes (fp)
3ms su (ms)
su (fs)
sus (mp)
sus (fp)
o...dele (ms)
a...dele (fs)
os...dele (mp)
as...dele (fp)
il suo (ms)
la sua (fs)
i suoi (mp)
le sue (fp)
son (ms)
sa (fs)
ses (mp)
ses (fp)
3fs su (ms)
su (fs)
sus (mp)
sus (fp)
o...dela (ms)
a...dela (fs)
os...dela (mp)
as...dela (fp)
il suo (ms)
la sua (fs)
i suoi (mp)
le sue (fp)
son (ms)
sa (sa)
ses (mp)
ses (fp)
3sF su (ms)
su (fs)
sus (mp)
sus (fp)
o seu (ms)
a sua (fs)
o seus (mp)
a suas (fp)
il Suo (ms)
la Sua (fs)
i Suoi (mp)
le Sue (fp)
votre (ms)
votre (fs)
vos (mp)
vos (fp)
1p nuestro (ms)
nuestra (fs)
nuestros (mp)
nuestras (fp)
o nosso (ms)
a nossa (fs)
o nossos (mp)
a nossas (fp)
il nostro (ms)
la nostra (fs)
i nostri (mp)
le nostre (fp)
notre (ms)
notre (fs)
nos (mp)
nos (fp)
2p vuestro (ms)
vuestra (fs)
vuestros (mp)
vuestras (fp)
o vosso (ms)
a vossa (fs)
os vossos (mp)
as vossas (fp)
il vostro (ms)
la vostra (fs)
i vostri (mp)
le vostre (fp)
votre (ms)
votre (fs)
vos (mp)
vos (fp)
3mp su (ms)
su (fs)
sus (mp)
sus (fp)
o...deles (ms)
a...deles (fs)
os...deles (mp)
as...delas (fp)
il loro (ms)
la loro (fs)
i loro (mp)
le loro (fp)
leur (ms)
leur (fs)
leurs (mp)
leurs (fp)
3fp su (ms)
su (fs)
sus (mp)
sus (fp)
o...delas (ms)
a...delas (fs)
os...delas (mp)
as..delas (fp)
il loro (ms)
la loro (fs)
i loro (mp)
le loro (fp)
leur (ms)
leur (fs)
leurs (mp)
leurs (fp)
3pF su (ms)
su (fs)
sus (mp)
sus (fp)
o seu (ms)
a sua (fs)
os seus (mp)
as suas (fp)
il Loro (ms)
la Loro (fs)
i Loro (mp)
le Loro (fp)
votre (ms)
votre (fs)
vos (mp)
vos (fp)
Possessive Pronouns
1s mío (ms)
mía (fs)
míos (mp)
mías (fp)
o meu (ms)
a minha (fs)
os meus (mp)
as minhas (fp)
il mio (ms)
la mia (fs)
i miei (mp)
le mie (fp)
le mien (ms)
la mienne (fs)
les miens (mp)
les miennes (fp)
2s tuyo (ms)
tuya (fs)
tuyos (mp)
tuyas (fp)
o teu (ms)
a tua (fs)
os teus (mp)
as tuas (fp)
il tuo (ms)
la tua (fs)
i tuoi (mp)
le tue (fp)
le tien (ms)
la tienne (fs)
les tiens (mp)
les tiennes (fp)
3ms suyo (ms)
suya (fs)
suyos (mp)
suyas (fp)
o dele (ms)
a dele (fs)
os dele (mp)
as dele (fp)
il suo (ms)
la sua (fs)
i suoi (mp)
le sue (fp)
le sien (ms)
la sienne (fs)
les siens (mp)
les siennes (fp)
3fs suyo (ms)
suya (fs)
suyos (mp)
suyas (fp)
o dela (ms)
a dela (fs)
os dela (mp)
as dela (fp)
il suo (ms)
la sua (fs)
i suoi (mp)
le sue (fp)
le sien (ms)
la sienne (sa)
les siens (mp)
les siennes (fp)
3sF suyo (ms)
suya (fs)
suyos (mp)
suyas (fp)
o seu (ms)
a sua (fs)
o seus (mp)
a suas (fp)
il Suo (ms)
la Sua (fs)
i Suoi (mp)
le Sue (fp)
le vôtre (ms)
la vôtre (fs)
les vôtres (mp)
les vôtres (fp)
1p nuestro (ms)
nuestra (fs)
nuestros (mp)
nuestras (fp)
o nosso (ms)
a nossa (fs)
o nossos (mp)
a nossas (fp)
il nostro (ms)
la nostra (fs)
i nostri (mp)
le nostre (fp)
le nôtre (ms)
la nôtre (fs)
les nôtres (mp)
les nôtres (fp)
2p vuestro (ms)
vuestra (fs)
vuestros (mp)
vuestras (fp)
o vosso (ms)
a vossa (fs)
os vossos (mp)
as vossas (fp)
il vostro (ms)
la vostra (fs)
i vostri (mp)
le vostre (fp)
le vôtre (ms)
la vôtre (fs)
les vôtres (mp)
les vôtres (fp)
3mp suyo (ms)
suya (fs)
suyos (mp)
suyas (fp)
o deles (ms)
a deles (fs)
os deles (mp)
as delas (fp)
il loro (ms)
la loro (fs)
i loro (mp)
le loro (fp)
le leur (ms)
la leur (fs)
les leurs (mp)
les leurs (fp)
3fp suyo (ms)
suya (fs)
suyos (mp)
suyas (fp)
o delas (ms)
a delas (fs)
os delas (mp)
as delas (fp)
il loro (ms)
la loro (fs)
i loro (mp)
le loro (fp)
le leur (ms)
la leur (fs)
les leurs (mp)
les leurs (fp)
3pF suyo (ms)
suya (fs)
suyos (mp)
suyas (fp)
o seu (ms)
a sua (fs)
os seus (mp)
as suas (fp)
il Loro (ms)
la Loro (fs)
i Loro (mp)
le Loro (fp)
le vôtre (ms)
la vôtre (fs)
les vôtres (mp)
les vôtres (fp)


Demonstrative Adjectives
close este (ms)
esta (fs)
esto (ns)
estos (mp)
estas (fp)
este (ms)
esta (fs)

estes (mp)
estas (fp)
questo (ms)
questa (fs)

questi (mp)
queste (fp)
ce ...-ci (ms)cet ...-ci (ms, before [v] or h)
cette ...-ci (fs)
ces ...-ci (mp)
ces ...-ci (fp)
far ese (ms)
esa (fs)
eso (ns)
esos (mp)
esas (fp)
esse (ms)
essa (fs)

esses (mp)
essas (fp)
codesto (ms)
codesta (fs)

codesti (mp)
codeste (fp)

further aquel (ms)
aquella (fs)
aquello (ns)
aquellos (mp)
aquellas (fp)
aquele (ms)
aquela (fs)
aquelo (ns)
aquelos (mp)
aquelas (fp)
quello (ms *1)
quel (ms)
quella (fs)
quell' (fs *2)
quei (mp)
quegli (mp *3)
quelle (fp)
ce ...-là (ms)
cet ...-là (ms, before [v] or h)
cette ...-là (fs)
ces ...-là (mp)
ces ...-là (fp)

*1: Before Z or S+[c]
*2: Before [v]
*3: Before [v], Z or S+[c]

Demonstrative Pronouns
close éste (ms)
ésta (fs)
esto (ns)
éstos (mp)
éstas (fp)
iste (ms)
ista (fs)
isto (ns)
istos (mp)
istas (fp)
questo (ms)
questa (fs)

questi (mp)
queste (fp)
celui-ci (ms)
celle-ci (fs)

ceux-ci (mp)
celles-ci (fp)
far ése (ms)
ésa (fs)
eso (ns)
ésos (mp)
ésas (fp)
isse (ms)
issa (fs)
isso (ns)
issos (mp)
issas (fp)
codesto (ms)
codesta (fs)

codesti (mp)
codeste (fp)

further áquel (ms)
áquella (fs)
aquello (ns)
áquellos (mp)
áquellas (fp)
aquile (ms)
aquila (fs)
aquilo (ns)
aquilos (mp)
aquilas (fp)
quello (ms)
quella (fs)

quelli (mp)
quelle (fp)
celui-là (ms)
celle-là (fs)

ceux-là (mp)
celles-là (fp)


Interrogative Pronouns
what? ¿Qué? Que? Che? Que?/Que'est-ce que?
which? ¿Cuál (de)? (s)
¿Cuáles (de)? (p)
Qual? (s)
Quais? (p)
Qual? (s)
Quali? (p)
Lequel (ms)
Laquelle (fs)
Lesquels (mp)
Laquelles (fp)
who? ¿Quién? Quem? Chi? Qui?
where? ¿Dónde? Onde? Dove? Où?
when? ¿Cuando? Quando? Quando? Quand?
why? ¿Por qué? Porque? Perché? Pourquoi?
how? ¿Cómo (de)? Como? Como? Comment?
how much? ¿Cuánto? Quanto? Quanto? Combien?
how many? ¿Cuántos? Quantos? Quanti? Combien?
Interrogative Adjectives
which? Cuál (ms)
Cuál (fs)
Cuáles (mp)
Cuáles (fp)
Qual (ms)
Qual (fs)
Quales (mp)
Quales (fp)
Quale (s)
Quali (p)
Quel (ms)
Quelle (fs)
Quels (mp)
Quelles (fp)
how much? Cuánto (ms)
Cuánta (fs)
Quanto (ms)
Quanta (fs)
Quanto (ms)
Quanta (fs)
Combien de(s)
Combien de (p)
how many? Cuántos (mp)
Cuántas (fp)
Quantos (mp)
Quantas (fp)
Quanti (mp)
Quante (fp)


Conjunctions of Group 1
ES: -AR (example: habl ar = to speak)
PT: -AR (example: fal ar = to speak)
IT: -ARE (example: parl are = to speak)
FR: -ER (example: parl er = to speak)
infinitive habl ar fal ar parl are parl er
gerund habl ando fal ando parl ando
participle habl ado fal ado parl ato parl é
1s habl o fal o parl o (je) parl e
2s habl as fal as parl i (tu) parl es
3s habl a fal a parl a (il) parl e
1p habl amos fal amos parl iamo (nous) parl ons
2p habl áis fal ais parl ate (vous) parl ez
3p habl an fal am parl ano (ils) parl ent
PAST TENSE - PRETERITE INDICATIVE (I spoke) (IT: Passato Remoto) (FR: Passé Simple)
1s habl é fal ei parl ai (je) parl ai
2s habl aste fal aste parl asti (tu) parl as
3s habl ó fal ou parl ò (il) parl a
1p habl amos fal amos parl ammo (nous) parl âmes
2p habl asteis fal astes parl aste (vous) parl âtes
3p habl aron fal aram parl arono (ils) parl èrent
1s habl aba fal ava parl avo (je) parl ais
2s habl abas fal avas parl avi (tu) parl ais
3s habl aba fal ava parl ava (il) parl ait
1p habl ábamos fal ávamos parl avamo (nous) parl ions
2p habl abais fal ávais parl avate (vous) parl iez
3p habl aban fal avam parl avano (ils) parl aient
1s habl aré fal arei parl erò (je) parl erai
2s habl arás fal arás parl erai (tu) parl eras
3s habl ará fal ará parl erà (il) parl era
1p habl aremos fal aremos parl eremo (nous) parl erons
2p habl aréis fal areis parl erete (vous) parl erez
3p habl arán fal arão parl eranno (ils) parl eront
1s habl aría fal aria parl erei (je) parl erais
2s habl arías fal arias parl eresti (tu) parl erais
3s habl aría fal aria parl erebbe (il) parl erait
1p habl aríamos fal aríamos parl eremmo (nous) parl erions
2p habl aríais fal aríais parl ereste (vous) parl eriez
3p habl arían fal aríam parl erebbero (ils) parl eraient
PRESENT TENSE - PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE (I speak) (IT: Congiuntivo Presente)
1s habl e fal e parl i (que je) parl e
2s habl es fal es parl i (que tu) parl es
3s habl e fal e parl i (qu'il) parl e
1p habl emos fal emos parl iamo (que nous) parl ions
2p habl éis fal eis parl iate (que vous) parl iez
3p habl en fal em parl ino (qu'ils) parl ent
PAST TENSE - IMPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE (I spoke) (IT: Congiuntivo Imperfetto)
1s habl ara/ase fal asse parl assi (que je) parl asse
2s habl aras/ases fal asses parl assi (que tu) parl asses
3s habl ara/ase fal asse parl asse (qu'il) parl ât
1p habl áramos/ásemos fal ássemos parl assimo (que nous) parl assions
2p habl arais/aseis fal ásseis parl aste (que vous) parl assiez
3p habl aran/asen fal assem parl assero (que ils) parl assent
2s habl a, no habl es fal a parl a parl e
3s habl e, no habl e parl i
1p habl emos, no habl emos parl iamo parl ons
2p habl ad, no habl éis parl ate parl ez
3p habl en, no habl en parl ino
Irregularities in Group 1


Words ending in EMER, ENER, ESER or EVER get an accent sign to the left on the first E in the 1st person singular, 2nd person singular, 3rd person singular and 3rd person plural in the present tense (je, tu, il/elle, ils/elles).
Example: Semer: Je sème, Tu sèmes, Il sème, Nous semons, Vous semez, Ils sèment

Words ending in -ÉGER, - ÉRER, or - ÉTER change the accent to the left instead of right in all persons and tenses except future and conditional tense. Protéger: Je protège, Tu protèges, Il protège, Nous protègeons, Vous protègez, Ils protègent, Tu protègais, ATTENTION: Tu protégeras, this is future tense, no changes here.

Words ending in -ELER or -ETER get an extra consonant (an L or a T).
Examples: Appeler: J'appelle, Tu appelles, etc.. Jeter: Je jette, Tu jettes, etc..

For words ending in -CER: When the C is followed by an A or an O then the C will change in a Ç. Example:
Placer: Je place, Tu places, Il place, Nous plaçons, Vous placez, Ils placent

For words ending in -GER: When the G is followed by an A or an O then an E will be added after the G. Example:
Nager: Je nage, Tu nage, Il nage, Nous nageons, Vous nagez

For words ending in -OYER, -UYER and sometimes also -AYER: When the Y would otherwise be followed by an inaudible E that Y will be replaced by an I.Example:
Nettoyer: Je nettoie, Tu nettoie, Il nettoie, Nous nettoyons, Vous nettoyez, Ils nettoient

Conjunctions of Group 2
ES: -ER (example: com er = to eat)
PT: -ER (example: com er = to eat)
IT: -ERE (example: cred ere = to believe)
FR: -IR (example: fin ir = to end/finish)
infinitive com er com er cred ere fin ir
gerund com iendo com endo cred endo
participle com ido com ido cred uto fin i
1s com o com o cred o (je) fin is
2s com es com es cred i (tu) fin is
3s com e com e cred e (il) fin it
1p com emos com emos cred iamo (nous) fin issons
2p com éis com eis cred ete (vous) fin issez
3p com en com em cred ono (ils) fin issent
PAST TENSE - PRETERITE INDICATIVE (I spoke) (IT: Passato Remoto) (FR: Passé Simple)
1s com í com i cred etti (je) fin is
2s com iste com este cred esti (tu) fin is
3s com ió com eu cred ette (il) fin it
1p com imos com emos cred emmo (nous) fin îmes
2p com isteis com estes cred este (vous) fin îtes
3p com ieron com eram cred ettero (ils) fin irent
1s com ía com ia cred evo (je) fin issais
2s com ías com ias cred evi (tu) fin issais
3s com ía com ia cred eva (il) fin issait
1p com íamos com íamos cred evamo (nous) fin issions
2p com íais com íeis cred evate (vous) fin issiez
3p com ían com iam cred evano (ils) fin issaient
1s com eré com erei cred erò (je) fin irai
2s com erás com erás cred erai (tu) fin iras
3s com erá com erá cred erà (il) fin ira
1p com eremos com eremos cred eremo (nous) fin irons
2p com eréis com ereis cred erete (vous) fin irez
3p com erán com erão cred eranno (ils) fin iront
1s com ería com eria cred erei (je) fin irais
2s com erías com erias cred eresti (tu) fin irais
3s com ería com eria cred erebbe (il) fin irait
1p com eríamos com eríamos cred eremmo (nous) fin irions
2p com eríais com eríais cred ereste (vous) fin iriez
3p com erían com eríam cred erebbero (ils) fin iraient
PRESENT TENSE - PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE (I speak) (IT: Congiuntivo Presente)
1s com a com a cred a (que je) fin isse
2s com as com as cred a (que tu) fin isses
3s com a com a cred a (qu'il) fin isse
1p com amos com amos cred iamo (que nous) fin issions
2p com áis com ais cred iate (que vous) fin issiez
3p com an com am cred ano (qu'ils) fin issent
PAST TENSE - IMPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE (I spoke) (IT: Congiuntivo Imperfetto)
1s com iera/iese com esse cred essi (que je) fin isse
2s com ieras/ieses com esses cred essi (que tu) fin isses
3s com iera/iese com esse cred esse (qu'il) fin ît
1p com iéramos/iésemos com êssemos cred essimo (que nous) fin issions
2p com ierais/ieseis com êsseis cred este (que vous) fin issiez
3p com ieran/iesen com essem cred essero (que ils) fin issent
2s com e, no com as com e cred i fin is
3s com a, no com a cred a
1p com emos, no com amos cred iamo fin issons
2p com ed, no com áis cred ete fin issez
3p com an, no com an cred ano
Irregularities in Group 2


This group contains one exceptional case we have to mention, when the verb ends in ECER then the first person singular, present tense will get an extra Z. An example, let's take the verb: abborecer, instead of "(yo) abboreco" we get "(yo) abborezco". This only applies to first person singular in the present tense.

Conjunctions of Group 3
ES: -IR (example: viv ir = to live)
PT: -IR (example: part ir = to leave)
IT: -IRE (example: part ire = to leave)
FR: -RE (example: rend re = to give back)
infinitive viv ir part ir part ire rend re
gerund viv iendo part indo part endo
participle viv ido part ido part ito rend u
1s viv o part o part o (je) rend s
2s viv es part es part i (tu) rend s
3s viv e part e part e (il) rend
1p viv imos part imos part iamo (nous) rend ons
2p viv ís part is part ite (vous) rend ez
3p viv en part em part ono (ils) rend ent
PAST TENSE - PRETERITE INDICATIVE (I spoke) (IT: Passato Remoto) (FR: Passé Simple)
1s viv í part i part ii (je) rend is
2s viv iste part iste part isti (tu) rend is
3s viv ió part iu part ì (il) rend it
1p viv imos part imos part immo (nous) rend îmes
2p viv isteis part istes part iste (vous) rend îtes
3p viv ieron part iram part irono (ils) rend irent
1s viv ía part ia part ivo (je) rend ais
2s viv ías part ias part ivi (tu) rend ais
3s viv ía part ia part iva (il) rend ait
1p viv íamos part íamos part ivamo (nous) rend ions
2p viv íais part íeis part ivate (vous) rend iez
3p viv ían part iam part ivano (ils) rend aient
1s viv iré part irei part irò (je) rend rai
2s viv irás part irás part irai (tu) rend ras
3s viv irá part irá part irà (il) rend ra
1p viv iremos part iremos part iremo (nous) rend rons
2p viv iréis part ireis part irete (vous) rend rez
3p viv irán part irão part iranno (ils) rend ront
1s viv iría part iria part irei (je) rend rais
2s viv irías part irias part iresti (tu) rend rais
3s viv iría part iria part irebbe (il) rend rait
1p viv iríamos part iríamos part iremmo (nous) rend rions
2p viv iríais part iríais part ireste (vous) rend riez
3p viv irían part iríam part irebbero (ils) rend raient
PRESENT TENSE - PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE (I speak) (IT: Congiuntivo Presente)
1s viv a part a part a (que je) rend e
2s viv as part as part a (que tu) rend es
3s viv a part a part a (qu'il) rend e
1p viv amos part amos part iamo (que nous) rend ions
2p viv áis part ais part iate (que vous) rend iez
3p viv an part am part ano (qu'ils) rend ent
PAST TENSE - IMPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE (I spoke) (IT: Congiuntivo Imperfetto)
1s viv iera/iese part isse part issi (que je) fin isse
2s viv ieras/ieses part isses part issi (que tu) fin isses
3s viv iera/iese part isse part isse (qu'il) fin ît
1p viv iéramos/iésemos part íssemos part issimo (que nous) fin issions
2p viv ierais/ieseis part ísseis part iste (que vous) fin issiez
3p viv ieran/iesen part issem part issero (que ils) fin issent
2s viv e, no viv as part e part i rend s
3s viv a, no viv a part a
1p viv emos, no viv amos part iamo rend ons
2p viv id, no viv áis part ite rend ez
3p viv an, no viv an part ano
Imperfect vs Preterit Tense
ES: Imperfecto & Preterito
PT: Imperfecto & Preterito
IT: Imperfetto & Pasato Remoto
FR: Imparfait & Passé Simple

(Assisted by Miguél Angel Lopera Molero)

In Spanish, Portuguese, Italian and French there are two past tenses, we'll call them the preterite (in italian passato remoto and in french passé simple) and the imperfect tense, we'll now show you which tense to use at what moments and why.

But first of all we can say that this issue of two past tenses doesn't really apply to the french language. Altough they have an imparfait and a passé simple. The passé simple is only used in old and official literature and is rarely used in speech or everyday writings. So in French you can just use the imparfait when you need a past tense and this chapter doesn't really apply.

Preterite Tense

For foreigners it might be difficult to know when to use the Imperfect tense and when to use the Preterite tense in Spanish and Portuguese (the passato remoto in Italian). I assume you already read how to conjugate verbs in both tenses but I assume you don't know when to use them since they both describe a past tense, which is only one tense, the simple past, in English. The preterite is a tense that is to be used when something takes place in the past and also ends in the past. It begins at a specific time in the past and also ends at a specific time in the past, although that might not be clearly stated in the sentence. But something did occur specifically in the past and is now over, it's a completed action.

A few situations when the preterite is to be used (note that all describe a completed action in the past):

--> An action is a single (completed) event in the past.

--> An action occurred during a specifc period of time

--> An action was repeated a specific number of times

--> An action was part of a bigger entity of events

--> An action describes a beginning or an end.

Some spanish example sentences using preterite tense:

I ran to the store = Corrí a la tienda.

I walked for five minutes = Anduve durante cinco minutos

I ate an apple = Comí una manzana

We lived in that old house for only two weeks = Vivimos en aquella casa vieja durante sólo dos semanos

I went to work, greeted my boss and sat down behind my desk = Me fui al trabajo, saludé a mi jefe y me senté detrás de mi escritorio.

The airplane began it's descend at 6:00 am = El avión comenzó el descenso a las 6 de la mañana.

Imperfect Tense

The imperfect tense tells us when something occurred in general in the past, but no clear beginning or ending is implied, it might still be occuring and might already be occuring for a long time.

Usually the imperfect can also be translated with "used to ..." or "was/were ...+ing".

A few situations when the imperfect is to be used (note that all describe an action in the past that is not seen as completed):

--> To tell the time

--> To tell your age

--> To indicate a habit, something that was and maybe still is being repeated

--> To describe characteristics of nouns

--> To describe mental or physical state

--> To create a scene for another action in the past

Spanish examples using the Imperfect tense:

At the time we felt comfortable = En aquel momento nos sentimos cómodos

It was four o'clock = Eran las cuatro en punto

She was fourteen years old = Ella tenía catorce años

I was watching TV when my dad left the house (was watching is Imperfect, left is Preterit) =

Estaba viendo la televisíon cuando mi padre salía la casa

He always read the newspaper in the morning = Siempre leía el periódico por la mañana

His car reminded me of an old wreck I used to have. = Su choche me recordaba a un viejo cacharro que yo tenía

I was feeling ill = Me sentía mal


To Be
ES: estar
PT: estar
IT: essere
FR: être
infinitive estar estar essere être
gerund estando estando essendo
participle estado estado stato été
1s estoy estou sono (je) suis
2s estás estás sei (tu) es
3s está está è (il) est
1p estamos estamos siamo (nous) sommos
2p estáis estais siete (vous) êtes
3p están estão sono (ils) sont
PAST TENSE - PRETERITE INDICATIVE (I spoke) (IT: Passato Remoto) (FR: Passé Simple)
1s estuve estive fui (je) fus
2s estuviste estiveste fosti (tu) fus
3s estuvo estive fu (il) fut
1p estuvimos estivemos fummo (nous) fûmes
2p estuvisteis estivestes foste (vous) fûtes
3p estuvieron estiveram furono (ils) furent
1s estaba estava ero (je) étais
2s estabas estavas eri (tu) étais
3s estaba estava era (il) était
1p estabamos estávamos eravamo (nous) étions
2p estabais estávais eravate (vous) étiez
3p estaban estavam erano (ils) étaient
1s estaré estarei sarò (je) serai
2s estarás estarás sarai (tu) seras
3s estará estará sarà (il) sera
1p estaremos estaremos saremo (nous) serons
2p estaréis estareis sarete (vous) serez
3p estarán estarão saranno (ils) seront
1s estaría estaria sarei (je) serais
2s estarías estarias saresti (tu) serais
3s estaría estaria sarebbe (il) serait
1p estaríamos estaríamos saremmo (nous) serions
2p estaríais estaríais sareste (vous) seriez
3p estarían estaríam sarebbero (ils) seraient
PRESENT TENSE - PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE (I speak) (IT: Congiuntivo Presente)
1s esté esteja sia (que je) sois
2s estés estejas sia (que tu) sois
3s esté esteja sia (qu'il) soit
1p estemos estejamos siamo (que nous) soyons
2p estéis estejais siate (que vous) soyez
3p estén estejam siano (qu'ils) soient
PAST TENSE - IMPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE (I spoke) (IT: Congiuntivo Imperfetto)
1s estuviera/estuviese estivesse fossi (que je) fusse
2s estuvieras/estuviesas estivesses fossi (que tu) fusses
3s estuviera/estuviese estivesse fosse (qu'il) fût
1p estuvieramos/~viésemos estivéssemos fossimo (que nous) fussions
2p estuvierais/~vieseis estivésseis foste (que vous) fussiez
3p estuvieran/~viesen estivessem fossere (que ils) fussent
To Have
ES: haber
PT: ter
IT: avere
FR: avoir
infinitive haber ter avere avoir
gerund habiendo tendo avendo
participle habido tido avuto eu
1s he tenho ho (je) ai
2s has tens hai (tu) as
3s ha tem ha (il) a
1p hemos temos abbiamo (nous) avons
2p habéis tendes avete (vous) avez
3p han têm hanno (ils) ont
PAST TENSE - PRETERITE INDICATIVE (I spoke) (IT: Passato Remoto) (FR: Passé Simple)
1s hube tive ebbi (je) eus
2s hubiste tiveste avesti (tu) eus
3s hubo teve ebbe (il) eut
1p hubimos tivimos avemmo (nous) eûmes
2p hubisteis tivestes aveste (vous) eûtes
3p hubieron tiveram ebbero (ils) eurent
1s había tinha avevo (je) avais
2s habías tinhas avevi (tu) avais
3s había tinha aveva (il) avait
1p habíamos tinhamos avevamo (nous) avions
2p habíais tinheis avevate (vous) aviez
3p habían tinham avevano (ils) avaient
1s habré terei avrò (je) aurai
2s habrás terás avrai (tu) auras
3s habrá terá avrà (il) aura
1p habremos teremos avremo (nous) aurons
2p habréis tereis avrete (vous) aurez
3p habrán terão avranno (ils) auront
1s habría teria avrei (je) aurais
2s habrías terias avresti (tu) aurais
3s habría teria avrebbe (il) aurait
1p habríamos teríamos avremmo (nous) aurions
2p habríais teríais avreste (vous) auriez
3p habrían teríam avrebbero (ils) auraient
PRESENT TENSE - PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE (I speak) (IT: Congiuntivo Presente)
1s haya tenha abbia (que je) aie
2s hayas tenhas abbia (que tu) aies
3s haya tenha abbia (qu'il) ait
1p hayamos tenhamos abbiamo (que nous) ayons
2p hayáis tenhais abbiate (que vous) ayez
3p hayan tenham abbiano (qu'ils) aient
PAST TENSE - IMPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE (I spoke) (IT: Congiuntivo Imperfetto)
1s hubiera/hubiese tivesse avessi (que je) eusse
2s hubieras/hubieses tivesses avessi (que tu) eusses
3s hubiera/~iese tivesse avesse (qu'il) eÛt
1p hubiéramos/~iésemos tivêssemos avessimo (que nous) eussions
2p hubierais/~ieseis tivêsseis aveste (que vous) eussiez
3p hubieran/~iesen tivessem avessero (que ils) eussent
Compound Tenses
CONTINUOUS TENSE: To be (speaking)
RULE:estar + gerundestar + gerundstare + gerund
PERFECT TENSE: To have (spoken)
RULE:haber + participleter + ptcplavere + ptcplavoir + ptcpl
Estar vs Ser

(Spanish assistance by Miguel Ángel Lopera Molero)

In Spanish and Portuguese there are to verbs for the English verb "To be", this might be a bit confusing at first for foreigners but there are rules when to use Ser and when to use Estar. On this page you'll learn the difference between the two and after reading this you'll know in what situations you should use Ser in what situations you should use Estar.

The basic rule about which one to use goes like this: If you're describing a temporary condition, you're describing HOW something is, then you use Estar. And if you're describing an essential fixed property, you're describing WHAT something is, then you use Ser.

This might still sound a little vague, so we'll explain some further, Ser is used to:

--> Tell Time

--> Tell about possession

--> Tell about the material something is made of

--> Tell the place of origin

--> Tell about one's nationality

--> Tell about a certain relationship between two persons

--> Tell about profession/occupation

--> Tell about one's religion or political affiliation

--> Tell where an event is taking place

--> Tell about unchanging properties/qualities

Some examples using Ser will follow now (English - Spanish - Portuguese):

EN: He is a plumber
ES: Él es fontanero
PT: Ele é bombeiro

EN: My coat is totally made of cotton
ES: Mi abrigo es de algodón 100%
PT: O meu sobretudo é de algodão 100%

EN: I am from the Netherlands, so I am dutch
ES: Soy de Holanda, así que soy Holandés
PT: Sou de Holanda, de modo que sou Holandês

EN: He is her little brother
ES: Él es su hermano pequeño
PT: Ele é o seu irmão pequeno

EN: That is my bike
ES: Ésa es mi bici
PT: Issa é minha bicicleta

EN: They are catholic
ES: Son católicos
PT: São católicos

EN: My party is today
ES: Mi fiesta es hoy
PT: A minha festa é hoje

EN: The leaves of the tree are green
ES: Las hojas del arbol son verdes
PT: As folhas da árvore são verdes
(Note that this only applies to trees that remain green in all seasons, if a tree loses it`s green leaves in autumn then Estar is to be used since it would then be a temporary condition instead of a fixed fact)

Now let's talk about Estar, Estar is used to:

--> Tell where someone is, to express location

--> Tell the state or condition of a certain object/person

--> Tell something is in progress (Estar in combination with the gerund)

Some example sentences:

EN: I am in the house
ES: Estoy en la casa
PT: Estou em a casa

EN: He is very happy
ES: Él está muy contento
PT: Ele está mui contento

EN: She is ill
ES: Ella está enferma
PT: Ela está doente

EN: I am riding my bike
ES: Estoy montando en mi bici
PT: Estou montando em minha bicicleta
(This sentence uses the ESTAR + GERUND combination to express something is in progress)



Abrir (to open)
Participle: abierto
Acertar (e:ie) (to guess right) (EXAMPLE FOR E->IE STEM CHANGERS)
Present: Acierto, Aciertes, Acierte, Acertamos, Acertáis, Aciertan
Imperfect: Acertaba, Acertabas, Acertaba, Acertábamos, Acertabais, Acertaban
Preterit: Acerté, Acertaste, Acertó, Acertamos, Acertasteis, Acertaron
Future: Acertaré, Acertarás, Acertará, Acertaremos, Acertaréis, Acertarán
Conditional: Acertaría, Acertarías, Acertariá, Acertaríamos, Acertaríais, Acertarían
Participle: Acertado
Gerund: Acertando
Acordar(se) (o:ue) (to decide) (EXAMPLE FOR O->UE STEM CHANGERS)
Present: Acuerdo, Acuerdas, Acuera, Acordamos, Acordáis, Acuerdan
Imperfect: Acordaba, Acordabas, Acordaba, Acordabamos, Acordabais, Acordaban
Preterit: Acordé, Acordaste, Acordó, Acordamos, Acordasteis, Acordaron
Future: Acordaré, Acordarás, Acordará, Acordemos, Acordéis, Acordan
Conditional: Acordaría, Acordarías, Acordariá, Acordaríamos, Acordaríais, Acordarían
Participle: Acordado
Gerund: Acordando
Acostar(se) (o:ue) (to lay down)
Adestrar (e:ie)
Adquirir (i:ie) (to acquire)
Advertir (i:ie, e:i) (to warn) (EXAMPLE FOR I->IE AND E->I STEM CHANGERS)
Present: Advierto, Adviertes, Advierte, Advertimos, Advertís, Advierten
Imperfect: Advertía, Advertías, Advertía, Advertíamos, Advertíais, Advertían
Preterit: Advertí, Advertiste, Advirtió, Advertimos, Advertisteis, Advirtieron
Future: Advertiré, Advertirás, Advertirá, Advertiremos, Advertiréis, Advertirán
Conditional: Advertirí, Advertirías, Advertiría, Advertiríamos, Advertiríais, Advertirían
Participle: Advertido
Gerund: Advertiendo
Alentar (e:ie) (to encourage)
Almorzar (o:ue) (to have lunch)
Andar (to walk)
Preterit: Anduve, Anduviste, Anduvo, Anduvimos, Anduveis, Anduvieron
Apostar (o:ue) (to bet)
Apretar (e:ie) (to tighten)
Aprobar (o:ue) (to approve)
Arrendar (e:ie) (to rest)
Arrepentirse (i:ie, e:i) (to regret)
Ascender (e:ie) (to ascend)
Atender (e:ie) (to take care of)
Atravesar (e:ie) (to cross)
Avergonzar (o:ue) (to shame)
Bendecir - Like Decir (to bless)
Caber (to fit in, to get in)
Present: Quepo, Cabes
Preterit: Cupe, Cupiste, Cupo, Cupimos, Cupisteis, Cupieron
Caer (to fall, to crash)
Present: Caigo, Caes
Preterit: Caiga, Caigas
Calentar (e:ie) (to warm up)
Cegar (e:ie) (to blind)
Ceñir (e:i) (to fit)
Cerrar (e:ie) (to close)
Cocer (o:ue) (to cook)
Colar (o:ue) (to strain)
Colegir (e:i) (to collect/to gather)
Colgar (o:ue) (to hang)
Comenzar (e:ie) (to begin)
Competir (e:i) (to compete)
Concebir (e:i) (to conceive)
Concernir (e:ie) (to concern)
Concertar (e:ie) (to arrange)
Concordar (o:ue) (to agree)
Confesar (e:ie) (to confess)
Constreñir (e:i) (to restrict)
Contar (o:ue) (to count)
Corregir (e:i) (to correct)
Costar (o:ue) (to cost)
Cubrir (to cover)
Participle: cubierto
Dar (to give)
Present: Doy, Das, Da, Damos, Dais, Dan
Imperfect: Daba, Dabas, Daba, Dábamos, Dabais, Daban
Preterit: Di, Diste, Dio, Dimos, Disteis, Dieron
Participle: Dado
Gerund: Dado
Decir (to say)
Present: Digo, Dices, Dice, Decimos, Decís, Dicen
Imperfect: Decía
Preterit: Dije, Dijiste, Dijo, Dijimos, Dijisteis, Dijeron
Participle: Dicho
Gerund: Diciendo
Defender (e:ie) (to defend)
Degollar (o:ue) (to decapitate)
Derretir(se) (e:i) (to melt)
Descender (e:ie) (to descend)
Desdecir(se) - Like Decir
Desleír (e:i) (to dissolve)
Present: Deslío, Deslíes
Despertar(se) (e:ie) (to wake up)
Desterrar (e:ie) (to exile)
Discernir (e:ie) (to discern)
Disolver - Like resolver (to dissolve)
Divertir(se) (e:ei, e:i) (to amuse)
Doler (o:ue) (to hurt)
Dormir(se) (to sleep)
Present: Duermo, Duermes, Duerme, Dormimos, Dormís, Duermen
Imperfect: Dormía
Preterit: Dormí, Domriste, Durmío, Durmimos, Durmisteis, Durmieron
Participle: Dormido
Gerund: Durmiendo
Ducir - All verbs ending in ducir conjugate like like conducir
Elegir (e:i) (to choose)
Embestir (e:i) (to attack)
Empezar (e:ie) (to begin)
Encender (e:ie)
Encomendar (e:ie) (to entrust)
Encontrar(se) (o:ue) (to find)
Engrosar (o:ue) (to thicken)
Enmendar (e:ie) (to amend)
Ensangrentar (e:ie) (to cover with blood)
Entender (e:ie) (to understand)
Enterrar (e:ie) (to bury)
Erguir (e:i) (to raise)
Errar (e:ie) (to be mistaken)
Present: Yerro, Yerras, Yerra, Erramos, Yerran
Escocer (o:ue)
Escribir (to write)
Participle: Escrito
Esforzar (o:ue) (to make an effort)
Estar - See auxiliary verbs section
Ferir - All verbs ending in ferir. (e:i, e:ie)
Forzar (o:ue) (to force)
Fregar (e:ie) (to mop)
Freír (e:i) (to fry)
Gemir (e:i:) (to moan)
Gerir - All verbs ending in gerir - (e:ie, e:i)
Gobernar (e:ie) (to govern)
Haber - See auxiliary verbs section
Hacer (To do, to make)
Present: Hago, Haces, Hace, Hacemos, Hacéis, Hacen
Imperfect: Hacía
Preterit: Hice, Hiciste, Hizo, Hicimos, Hicisteis, Hicieron
Participle: Hecho
Heder (e:ie)
Helar (e:ie) (to freeze)
Henchir (e:i) (to fill)
Hendir (e:ie)
Herir (e:i , e:ie) (to hurt)
Herrar (e:ie) (to shoe)
Hervir (e:i, e:ie) (to boil)
Holgar (o:ue) (to idle)
Imprimir (to print)
Participle: Imprimido, Impreso
Incensar (e:ie) (to insence)
Inquirir - Like adquirir (to inquire)
Invernar (e:ie) (to hibernate)
Invertir (i:ie) (to invent)
Ir (To go)
Present: Voy, Vas, Va, Vamos, Vais, Van
Imperfect: Iba, Ibas, Iba, Ibamos, Ibais, Iban
Preterit: Fui, Fuiste, Fue, Fuimos, Fuisteis, Fueron
Future: Iré
Participle: Ido
Gerund: Yendo
Jugar (To play)
Present: Juego, Juegas, Juega, Jugamos, Jugáis, Juegan
Llover (o:ue) (to rain)
Maldecir - Like decir (To curse)
Manifestar (e:ie) (to declare)
Medir (e:i) (to measure)
Mentar (e:ie) (to mention)
Mentir (e:ie, e:i) (to lie)
Merendar (e:ie) (to remember)
Moler (o:ue) (to grind)
Morder (o:ue) (to bite)
Morir (o:ue) (to die)
Participle: Muerto
Mostrar (o:ue) (to show)
Mover (o:ue) (to move)
Negar(se) (e:ie) (to deny)
Nevar (e:ie) (to snow)
Oír (to hear)
Present: Oigo, Oyes, Oye, Oímos, Oís, Oyen
Oler (o:ue) (to smell)
Present: Huelo, Hueles, Huele, Olemos, Oléis, Huelen
Pedir (e:i) (to request)
Pensar (e:ie) (to think)
Perder(se) (e:ie) (to lose)
Plegar (e:ie) (to fold)
Poblar (o:ue) (to populate)
Poder (o:ue) (to be able to/to can)
Present: Puedo, Puedes, Puede, Podemos, Podéis, Pueden
Preterit: Pude, Pudiste, Pudo, Pudimos, Pudisteis, Pudieron
Future: Podré, Podrás, Podrá, Podremos, Podréis, Podran
Conditional: Podría, Podrías, Podría, Podríamos, Podríais, Podrían
Gerund: Pudiendo
Poner (to put, to place)
Present: Pongo, Pones, Pone, Ponemos, Ponéis, Ponen
Imperfect: Ponía, Ponías
Preterit: Puse, Pusiste, Puso, Pusimos, Pusisteis, Pusieron
Future: Pondré, Pondrás
Conditional: Pondría, Pondrías
Participle: Puesto
Probar (o:ue) (to prove)
Quebrar (e:ie) (to break)
Querer (e:ei) (To want)
Present: Quiero, Quieres, Quiere, Queremos, Queréis, Queren
Preterit: Quise, Quisiste, Quiso, Quisimos, Quisisteis, Quisieron
Future: Querré
Conditional: Querría
Recomendar (e:ie) (to recommend)
Recordar (o:ue) (to remember)
Recostar (o:ue)
Regar (e:ie) (to water)
Regir (e:i) (to prevail)
Regoldar (o:ue)
Reír (e:i) (to laugh)
Present: Río, Ríes
Remendar (e:ie) (to mend)
Rendir (e:i) (to render)
Renovar (o:ue) (to renew)
Reñir (e:i) (to fight)
Repetir (e:i) (to repeat)
Requerir (e:i, e:ie) (to require)
Resollar (o:ue)
Resolver (to solve)
Participle: Resuelto
Restregar (e:ie)
Reventar (e:ie) (to burst)
Revolcar (o:ue)
Rodar (o:ue) (to roll)
Rogar (o:ue) (to request)
Romper (To break)
Participle: Roto
Saber (To know)
Present: Sé, Sabes, Sabe, Sabemos, Sabéis, Saben
Preterit: Supe, Supiste, Supo, Supimos, Supisteis, Supieron
Future: Sabré, Sabrás
Salir (to leave, to quit, to go out)
Present: Salgo, Sales, Sale, Salimos, Salís, Salen
Future: Saldré, Saldrás
Satisfacer (To satisfy)
Present: Satisfago, Satisfaces, Satisface
Preterit: Satisfice, Satisficiste, Satisfizo, Satisficimos, Satisficisteis, Satisficieron
Participle: Satisfecho
Segar (e: ie) (to harvest)
Seguir (e:i) (to follow)
Sembrar (e:ie) (to seed)
Sentar(se) (e:ie) (to sit)
Sentir (e:ie, e:i) (to feel)
Ser (to be)
Present: Soy, Eres, Es, Somos, Sois, Son
Imperfect: Era, Eras, Era, Éramos, Erais, Eran
Preterit: Fui, Fuiste, Fue, Fuimos, Fuisteis, Fueron
Future: Seré, Serás, Será, Seremos, Seréis, Serán
Conditional: Sería, Serías, Sería, Seríamos, Seríais, Serían
Participle: sido
Serrar (e:ie) (to saw)
Servir (e:i) (to serve)
Soldar (o:ue) (to weld)
Soler (o:ue) (to be accustomed to)
Soltar (o:ue) (to loosen)
Sonar (o:ue) (to sound)
Soñar (o:ue) (to dream)
Sosegar(se) (e:ie) (to calm)
Temblar (e:ie) (to shake)
Templar (e:ie) (to warm up)
Tender (e:ie)(to tend)
Tener (to have)
Present: Tengo, Tienes, Tiene, Tenemos, Tenéis, Tienen
Imperfect: Tenía, Tenías
Preterit: Tuve, Tuviste, Tuvo, Tuvimos, Tuvisteis, Tuvieron
Future: Tendré, Tendrás, Tendrá, Tendremos, Tentréis, Tendrán
Conditional: Tendría, Tendrías
Participle: tenido
Tentar (e:ie) (to touch)
Teñir (e:i)
Torcer (o:ue) (to twist)
Tostar (o:ue) (to toast)
Traer (To bring)
Present: Traigo, Traes, Trae, Traemos, Traéis, Traen
Preterit: Traje, Trajiste, Trajo, Trajimos, Trajisteis, Trajeron
Trascender (e:ie) (to extend)
Transcender (e:ie) (to extend)
Trocar (o:ue)
Tronar (o:ue) (to roar)
Tropezar (e:ie)
Valer (to be worth)
Present: Valgo, Vales, Vale
Future: Valdré, Valdrás
Conditional: Valdría, Valdrías
Venir (To come)
Present: Vengo, Vienes, Viene, Venimos, Venís, Vienen
Imperfect: Venía, Venías
Preterit: Vine, Viniste, Vino, Vinimos, Vinisteis, Vinieron
Future: Vendré, Vendrás
Conditional: Vendría, Vendrías
Gerund: Viniendo
Ver (To see)
Present: Veo, Ves, Ve, Vemos, Veis, Ven
Imperfect: Veía, Veías, Veía
Preterit: Vi, Viste, Vio, Vimos, Visteis, Vieron
Future: Veré, Verás
Conditional: Vería, Verías
Participle: Viendo
Gerund: Visto
Verter (e:ie) (to spill)
Vertir - All verbs ending in Vertir - (e:i, e:ie)
Vestir(se) (e:i) (to dress)
Volar (o:ue) (to fly)
Volcar (o:ue) (to upset)
Volver (to return)
Participle: Vuelto


Abrir (to open)
Participle: Aberto
Present: Acudo, acodes, acode
Present: Adiro
Present: Advirto
Present: Ajo
Present: Agradeço
Present: Agrido, Agrides, Agride, Agridem
Present: Anseio, Anseias, Anseia, Anseiam
Present: Arruíno, Arruínas, Arruína, Arruínam
Present: Aspirjo
Present: Atribuo, Atribuis, Atribui, Atribuímos, Atribuís, Atribuem
Present: Bulo, Boles, Bole, Bolem
Present: Caibo
Preterite: Coube etc..
Present: Caio, Cais, Cai, Caímos, Caís, Caem
Imperfect: Caía etc..
Preterit: Caí, Caíste
Present: Cubro
Participle: Coberto
Present: Coluro
Present: Compilo
Present: Creio, Crês, Crê, Cremos, Credes, Crêem
Preterite: Cri, Creste, Creu, Cremos, Crestes, Creram
Present: Cuspo, Cospes, Cospe, Cospem
Present: Dou, Dás, Dá, Damos, Dais, Dão
Preterite: Dei, Deste, Deu, Demos, Destes, Deram
Present: Deduzo, Deduzes, Deduz
Present: Denigro, Denigres, Denigre, Denigrem
Present: Disp
Present: Digo, Dizes, Diz, Dizemos, Dizeis, Dizem
Preterite: Disse etc...
Future: Direi etc..
Conditional: Diria etc...
Participle: Dito
Present: Dôo/Doo, Dóis, Dói
Present: Durmo
Participle: Escrito
Estar - See auxiliary verbs
Present: Exturco
Present: Faço
Preterite: Fiz, Fizeste, Fez, Fizemos, Fizestes, Fizeram
Future: Farei etc..
Conditional: Faria etc..
Participle: Feito
Present: Firo
Present: Fluo, Fluis, Flui, Fluímos, Fluís, Fluem
Present: Fujo, Foges, Foge, Fogem
Participle: Ganho
Participle: Gasto
Present: Giro
Present: Hei, Hás, Há, Havemos, Haveis, Hão
Imperfect: Havia etc..
Preterite: Houve, Houveste, Houve, Houvemos, Houvestes, Houveram
Gerund: Indo
Present: Vou, Vais, Vai, Vamos, Ides, Vão
Imperfect: Ia etc..
Preterite: Fui, Foste, Foi, Fomos, Fostes, Foram
Participle: Ido
Present: Leio, Lês, Lê, Lemos, Ledes, Lêem
Preterite: Li, Leste, Leu, Lemos, Lestes, Leram
Present: Meço
Present: Minto
Present: Ouço
Participle: Pago
Present: Paro, Paras, Pára
Present: Peço
Present: Perco
Present: Posso
Preterite: Pude, Pudeste, Pôde, Pudemos, Pudestes, Puderam
Present: Pulo, Pules, Pule, Pulem
Present: Ponho, Pões, Põe, Pomos, Pondes, Põem
Imperfect: Punha etc..
Preterite: Pus, Puseste, Pôs, Pusemos, Pusestes, Puseram
Future: Porei etc..
Conditional: Poria etc...
Participle: Posto
Gerund: Pondo
Present: Prefiro
Present: Previno, Prevines, Previne, Previnem
Present: Provejo, Provês, Provê, Provemos, Provedes, Provêem
Preterite: Provi, Proveste, Proveu, Provemos, Provestes, Proveram
Present: Quero, Queres, Quer
Preterite: Quis, Quisest, Quis, Quisemos, Quisestes, Quiseram
Present: Reflito
Present: Repito
Present: Requeiro, Requeres, Requer
Present: Reúno, Reúnes, Reúne, Reúnem
Present: Rio, Ris, Ri, Rimos, Rides, Riem
Preterite: Ri, Riste, Riu, Rimos, Ristes, Riram
Present: Sei, Sabes, Sabe, Sabemos, Sabeis, Sabem
Preterite: Soube, Soubeste, Soube, Soubemos, Soubestes, Souberam
Present: Sigo
Present: Sinto
Present: Sou, És, É, Somos, Sois, São
Imperfect: Era etc...
Preterite: Fui, Foste, Foi, Fomos, Fostes, Foram
Present: Sirvo
Present: Subo, Sobes, Sobe, Sobem
Present: Sustenho, Sustens, Sustém, Sustendes, Sustêm
Preterite: Sustive, Sustiveste, Susteve, Sustivemos, Sustivestes, Sustiveram
Ter - See Auxiliary verbs section
Present: Torço
Present: Tusso
Present: Traio, Trais, Trai, Traímos, Traís, Traem
Present: Trago, Trazes, Graz
Preterite: Trouxe, Trouxeste, Trouxe, Trouxemos, Trouxestes, Trouxeram
Future: Trarei etc..
Conditional: Traria etc..
Present: Valho
Present: Vejo, Vês, Vê, Vemos, Vedes, Vêem
Imperfect: Via etc..
Preterite: Vi, Viste, Viu, Vimos, Vistes, Viram
Participle: Visto
Gerund: Vindo
Present: Venho, Vens, Vem, Vimos, Vindes, Vêm
Imperfect: Vinha etc...
Preterite: VIm, Vieste, Veio, Viemos, Viestes, Vieram
Participle: Vindo


Accendere (to light)
Present: Accendo
Past (Preterit): Accesi
Future: Accenderò
Conditional: Accenderei
Participle: Acceso
Accludere (to enclose)
Present: Accludo
Past (Preterit): Acclusi
Future: Accluderò
Conditional: Accluderei
Participle: Accluso
Accorgersi (to notice)
Present: mi accorgo, ti accorgi, si accorge, ci accorgiamo, vi accorgete, si accorgono
Past (Preterit): mi accorsi
Future: mi accorgerò
Conditional: mi accorgerei
Participle: Accorto
Addurre (to claim)
Present: Adduco
Past (Preterit): Addussi
Future: Addurrò
Conditional: Addurrei
Participle: Addotto
Andare (to go)
Present: Vado, vai, va, andiamo, andate, vanno
Past (Preterit): Andai
Future: Andrò
Conditional: Andrei
Participle: Andato
Annettere (to add)
Present: Annetto
Past (Preterit): Annettei
Future: Annetterò
Conditional: Annetterei
Participle: Annesso
Apparire (to appear)
Present: Appaio, Apparisci, Appare, Appariamo, Apparite, Appaiono
Past (Preterit): Apparsi
Future: Apparirò
Conditional: Apparirei
Participle: Apparso
Appendere (to hang)
Present: Appendo
Past (Preterit): Appesi
Future: Appenderò
Conditional: Appenderei
Participle: Appeso
Aprire (to open)
Present: Apro
Past (Preterit): Aprii
Future: Aprirò
Conditional: Aprirei
Participle: Apparso
Ardere (to burn)
Present: Ardo
Past (Preterit): Arsi
Future: Arderò
Conditional: Arderei
Participle: Arso
Assistere (to assist)
Present: Assisto
Past (Preterit): Assistei
Future: Assisterò
Conditional: Assisterei
Participle: Assistito
Assumere (to accept)
Present: Assumo
Past (Preterit): Assunsi
Future: Assumerò
Conditional: Assumerei
Participle: Assunto
Bere (to drink)
Present: Bevo, Bevi, Beve, Beviamo, Bevete, Bevono
Past (Preterit): Bevvi
Future: Berrò
Conditional: Berrei
Participle: Bevuto
Cadere (to fall)
Present: Cado
Past (Preterit): Caddi
Future: Cadrò
Conditional: Cadrei
Participle: Caduto
Capire (to understand)
Present: Capisco, Capisci, Capisce, Capiamo, Capite, Capiscono
Past (Preterit): Capii
Future: Capirò
Conditional: Capirei
Participle: Capito
Chiedere (to ask)
Present: Chiedo
Past (Preterit): Chiesi
Future: Chiederò
Conditional: Chiederei
Participle: Chiesto
Chiudere (to close)
Present: Chiudo
Past (Preterit): Chiusi
Future: Chuiderò
Conditional: Chuiderei
Participle: Chiuso
Cingere (to surround)
Present: Cingo
Past (Preterit): Cinsi
Future: Cingerò
Conditional: Cingerei
Participle: Cinto
Cogliere (to pluck)
Present: Colgo, Cogli, Coglie, Cogliamo, Cogliete, Cogliete, Colgono
Past (Preterit): Colsi
Future: Coglierò
Conditional: Coglierei
Participle: Colto
Compiere (to complete)
Present: Compio, Compi, Compie, Compiamo, Compiete, Compiono
Past (Preterit): Compiei
Future: Compierò
Conditional: Compierei
Participle: Compiuto
Comprimere (to compress)
Present: Comprimo
Past (Preterit): Compressi
Future: Comprimerò
Conditional: Comprimerei
Participle: Compresso
Concludere (to conclude) - Has the same irregularities as chiudere
Condurre (to drive/to lead)
Present: Conduco
Past (Preterit): Condussi
Future: Condurrò
Conditional: Condurrei
Participle: Condotto
Connetterre (to connect)
Present: Connetto
Past (Preterit): Connessi
Future: Connetterò
Conditional: Connetterei
Participle: Connesso
Conoscere (to know (a person))
Present: Conosco
Past (Preterit): Conobbi
Future: Conoscerò
Conditional: Conoscerei
Participle: Conosciuto
Coprire (to cover)
Present: Copro
Past (Preterit): Coprii
Future: Coprirò
Conditional: Coprirei
Participle: Coperto
Correre (to run)
Present: Corro
Past (Preterit): Corsi
Future: Correrò
Conditional: Correrei
Participle: Corso
Construire (to build) - Has the same irregularities as capire
Crescere (to grow)
Present: Cresco
Past (Preterit): Crebbi
Future: Crescerò
Conditional: Crescerei
Participle: Cresciuto
Cucire (to sew)
Present: Cucio, cuci, cuce, cuciamo, cucite, cuciono
Past (Preterit): Cucii
Future: Cucirò
Conditional: Cucirei
Participle: Cucito
Cuocere (to cook)
Present: Cuocio, cuoci, cuoce, cuociamo, coucete, cuociono
Past (Preterit): Cossi
Future: Cuocerò
Conditional: Cuocerei
Participle: Cotto
Dare (to give)
Present: Do, dai, dà, diano, date, danno
Past (Preterit): Diedi
Future: Darò
Conditional: Darei
Participle: Dato
Decidere (to decide)
Present: Decido
Past (Preterit): Decisi
Future: Deciderò
Conditional: Deciderei
Participle: Deciso
Dedurre (to reduce) - Has the same irregularities as condurre
Deludere (to dissappoint) - Has the same irregularities as alludere
Deprimere (to humiliate) - Has the same irregularities as comprimere
Difendere (to defend)
Present: Difendo
Past (Preterit): Difesi
Future: Difenderò
Conditional: Difenderei
Participle: Difeso
Dipendere (to depend) - Has the same irregularities as appendere
Dipingere (to paint)
Present: Dipingo
Past (Preterit): Dipinsi
Future: Dipingerò
Conditional: Dipingerei
Participle: Dipinto
Dire (to say)
Present: Dico, dici, dice, diciamo, dite, dicono
Past (Preterit): Dissi
Future: Dirò
Conditional: Direi
Participle: Detto
Dirigire (to direct)
Present: Dirigo
Past (Preterit): Diressi
Future: Dirigerò
Conditional: Dirigerei
Participle: Diretto
Discutere (to discuss)
Present: Discuto
Past (Preterit): Discussi
Future: Discuterò
Conditional: Discuterei
Participle: Discusso
Dissuadere (to unrecommend)
Present: Dissuado
Past (Preterit): Dissuasi
Future: Dissuaderò
Conditional: Dissuaderei
Participle: Dissuaso
Distinguere (to distinguish)
Present: Distinguo
Past (Preterit): Distinsi
Future: Distinguerò
Conditional: Distinguerei
Participle: Distinto
Dividere (to divide)
Present: Divido
Past (Preterit): Divisi
Future: Dividerò
Conditional: Dividerei
Participle: Diviso
Dolere (to hurt)
Present: Dolgo, duoli, duole, dogliamo, dovete, dolgono
Past (Preterit): Dolsi
Future: Dorrò
Conditional: Dorrei
Participle: Doluto
Dovere (to have to/must)
Present: Devo, devi, deve, dobbiamo, dovete, debbono (devono)
Past (Preterit): Dovetti
Future: Dovrò
Conditional: Dovrei
Participle: Dovuto
Eccellere (to excel)
Present: Eccello
Past (Preterit): Eccelsi
Future: Eccellerò
Conditional: Eccellerei
Participle: Eccelso
Emergere (to emerge)
Present: Emergo
Past (Preterit): Emersi
Future: Emergerò
Conditional: Emergerei
Participle: Emerso
Erigere (to found)
Present: Erigo
Past (Preterit): Eressi
Future: Erigerò
Conditional: Erigerei
Participle: Eretto
Escludere (to exclude) - Has the same irregularities as alludere
Esigere (to demand)
Present: Esigo
Past (Preterit): Esigei
Future: Esigerò
Conditional: Esigerei
Participle: Esatto
Esistere (to exist)
Present: Esisto

Past (Preterit): Esistei Future: Esisterò
Conditional: Esisterei
Participle: Esistito
Espellere (to ban)
Present: Espello
Past (Preterit): Espulsi
Future: Espellerò
Conditional: Espellerei
Participle: Espulso
Esplodere (to explode)
Present: Esplodo
Past (Preterit): Esplosi
Future: Esploderò
Conditional: Esploderei
Participle: Esploso
Estinguere (to extinguish) - Has the same irregularities has distinguere
Fare (to do/to make)
Present: Faccio, fai, fa, facciamo, fate, fanno
Past (Preterit): Feci
Future: Farò
Conditional: Farei
Participle: Fatto
Fendere (to split)
Present: Fendo
Past (Preterit): Fendei
Future: Fenderò
Conditional: Fenferei
Participle: Fesso
figgere (to attach) (more commonly used: affigere)
Present: Figgo
Past (Preterit): Fissi
Future: Figgerò
Conditional: Figgerei
Participle: Fitto
Flettere (to bend)
Present: Fletto
Past (Preterit): Flettei
Future: Fletterò
Conditional: Fletterei
Participle: Flesso
Fondere (to melt)
Present: Fondo
Past (Preterit): Fusi
Future: Fonderò
Conditional: Fonderei
Participle: Fuso
Frangere (to break)
Present: Frango
Past (Preterit): Fransi
Future: Frangerò
Conditional: Frangerei
Participle: Franto
Friggere (to bake) - Has the same irregularities as affliggere
Giacere (to lay)
Present: Giacco, Giaci, Giace, Giaciamo, Giacete, Giacciono
Past (Preterit): Giacqui
Future: Giacerò
Conditional: Giacerei
Participle: Giaciuto
Giungere (to come)
Present: Giungo
Past (Preterit): Giunsi
Future: Giungerò
Conditional: Giungerei
Participle: Giunto
Immergere (to dive/to wet)
Present: Immergo
Past (Preterit): Immersi
Future: Immergerò
Conditional: Immergerei
Participle: Immerso
Includere (to include) - Has the same irregularities as alludere
Indurre (to lead to) - Has the same irregularities as condurre
Introdurre (to introduce) - Has the same irregularities as condurre
Invadare (to invade/to occupy)
Present: Invado
Past (Preterit): Invasi
Future: Invaderò
Conditional: Invaderei
Participle: Invaso
Leggere (to read)
Present: Leggo
Past (Preterit): Lessi
Future: Leggerò
Conditional: Leggerei
Participle: Letto
Mettere (to put)
Present: Metto
Past (Preterit): Misi
Future: Metterò
Conditional: Metterei
Participle: Messo
Mordere (to bite)
Present: Mordo
Past (Preterit): Morsi
Future: Morderò
Conditional: Morderei
Participle: Morso
Morire (to die)
Present: Muoio, muori, muore, moriamo, morite, muoiono
Past (Preterit): Morii
Future: Morirò
Conditional: Morirei
Participle: Morto
Muovere (to move) - Has the same irregularities as mordere, except for the participle:
Participle: Mosso
Nascere (to be born) - Has the same irregularities as conoscere, except for the participle:
Participle: Nato
Nascondere (to hide) - Has the same irregularities as mordere, except for the participle:
Participle: Nascosto
Nutrire (to feed) - Has the same irregularities as capire
Offendere (to offend)
Present: Offendo
Past (Preterit): Offesi
Future: Offenderò
Conditional: Offenderei
Participle: Offeso
Offrire (to offer)
Present: Offro
Past (Preterit): Offrii
Future: Offrirò
Conditional: Offrirei
Participle: Offerto
Opprimere (to oppress) - Has the same irregularities as comprimere
Parere (to shine)
Present: Paio, pari, pare, paiamo, parete, paiono
Past (Preterit): Parvi
Future: Parrò
Conditional: Parrei
Participle: Parso
Percuotere (to hit)
Present: Percuoto
Past (Preterit): Percossi
Future: Percuoterò
Conditional: Percuoterei
Participle: Percosso
Perdere (to lose)
Present: Perdo
Past (Preterit): Persi
Future: Perderò
Conditional: Perderei
Participle: Perso
Persuadere (to convince) - Has the same irregularities as dissuadere
Piacere (to like)
Present: Piaccio, Piaci, Piace, Piacciamo, Piacete, Piacciono
Past (Preterit): Piacqui
Future: Piacerò
Conditional: Piacerei
Participle: Pianto
Piovere (to rain) - This verb only as a third person, you can't say "I rain", but only "It rains"
Present: Piove
Past (Preterit): Piovve
Future: Pioverà
Conditional: Pioverebbe
Participle: Piovuto
Porre (to put down)
Present: Pongo, poni, pone, poniamo, ponete, pongono
Past (Preterit): Posi
Future: Porrò
Conditional: Porrei
Participle: Posto
Potere (to be able/can)
Present: Posso, puoi, può, possiamo, potete, possono
Past (Preterit): Potei
Future: Potrò
Conditional: Potrei
Participle: Potuto
Prendere (to take)
Present: Prendo
Past (Preterit): Presi
Future: Prenderò
Conditional: Prenderei
Participle: Preso
Presumere (to presume) - Has the same irregularities as assumere
Produrre (to produce) - Has the same irregularities as condurre
Proteggere (to protect)
Present: Proteggo
Past (Preterit): Protessi
Future: Proteggerò
Conditional: Proteggerei
Participle: Protetto
Pungere (to stab)
Present: Pungo
Past (Preterit): Punsi
Future: Pungerò
Conditional: Pungerei
Participle: Punto
Radere (to shear)
Present: Rado
Past (Preterit): Rasi
Future: Raderò
Conditional: Raderei
Participle: Raso
Reggere (to bear/to stand) - Has the same irregularities as leggere
Rendere (to return/to give back) - Has the same irregularities as prendere
Reprimere (to supress) - Has the same irregularities as comprimere
Retrocedere (to withdraw)
Present: Retrocedo
Past (Preterit): Retrocedei
Future: Retrocederò
Conditional: Retrocederei
Participle: Retroceduto
Ridere (to laugh) - Has the same irregularities as prendere
Ridurre (to reduce) - Has the same irregularities as condurre
Rimanere (to stay/to remain)
Present: Rimango, Rimani, Rimane, Rimaniamo, Rimanete, Rimangono
Past (Preterit): Romasi
Future: Rimarrò
Conditional: Rimarrei
Participle: Rimasto
Riprodurre (to reproduce) - Has the same irregularities as condurre
Risolvere (to resolve) - Has the same irregularities as assolvere
Rispondere (to respond/to answer)
Present: Rispondo
Past (Preterit): Risposi
Future: Risponderò
Conditional: Risponderei
Participle: Risposto
Rompere (to break)
Present: Rompo
Past (Preterit): Ruppi
Future: Romperò
Conditional: Romperei
Participle: Rotto
Salire (to raise)
Present: Salgo, Sali, Sale, Saliamo, Salite, Salgono
Past (Preterit): Salii
Future: Salirò
Conditional: Salirei
Participle: Salito
Sapere (to know)
Present: So, sai, sa, sappiamo, sapete, sanno
Past (Preterit): Seppi
Future: Saprò
Conditional: Saprei
Participle: Saputo
Scegliere (to choose)
Present: Scelgo, scelgi, scelgie, scegliamo, scegliete, scelgono
Past (Preterit): Scelsi
Future: Sceglierò
Conditional: Sceglierei
Participle: Scelto
Scendere (to go down)
Present: Scendo
Past (Preterit): Scesi
Future: Scenderò
Conditional: Scenderei
Participle: Sceso
Sciogliere (to dissolve) - Has the same irregularities as cogliere
Scomparire (to dissappear) - Has the same irregularities sa appararire
Scoprire (to discover) - Has the same irregularities coprire
Scorgere (to notice)
Present: Scorgo
Past (Preterit): Scorsi
Future: Scorgerò
Conditional: Scorgerei
Participle: Scorto
Scrivere (to write) - Has the same irregularities as leggere
Sedere (to sit)
Present: Siedo, Siedi, Siede, Sediamo, Sedete, Siedono
Past (Preterit): Sedei
Future: Sederò
Conditional: Sederei
Participle: Seduto
Sedurre (to seduce) - Has the same irregularities as condurre
Smettere (to stop/to quit) - Has the same irregularities as mettere
Soffrire (to suffer) - Has the same irregularities as offrire
Solere (to be normal/common)
Present: Soglio, Suoli, Suole, Sogliamo, Solete, Sogliono
Past (Preterit): Solei
Future: - (does not exist)
Conditional: - (does not exist)
Participle: Solito
Sommergere (to submerge) - Has the same irregularities as immergere
Sopprimere (to abolish) - Has the same irregularities as comprimere
Sorgere (to stand up) - Has the same irregularities as leggere, except the participle:
Participle: Sorto
Spandere (to expand)
Present: Spando
Past (Preterit): Spansi
Future: Spanderò
Conditional: Spanderei
Participle: Spanto
Spargere (to spread)
Present: Spargo
Past (Preterit): Sparsi
Future: Spargerò
Conditional: Spargerei
Participle: Sparso
Spendere (to spend)
Present: Spendo
Past (Preterit): Spesi
Future: Spenderò
Conditional: Spenderei
Participle: Speso
Spingere (to push)
Present: Spingo
Past (Preterit): Spinsi
Future: Spingerò
Conditional: Spingerei
Participle: Spinto
Stare (to stay/to remain)
Present: Sto, stai, sta, stiamo, state, stanno
Past (Preterit): Stetti
Future: Starò
Conditional: Starei
Participle: Stato
Stendere (to spread) - Has the same irregularities as tendere
Stingere (to push/to force)
Present: Stringo
Past (Preterit): Strinsi
Future: Stringerò
Conditional: Stringerei
Participle: Stretto
Struggere (to melt/to digest)
Present: Struggo
Past (Preterit): Strussi
Future: Struggerò
Conditional: Struggerei
Participle: Strutto
Succedere (to succeed (next)/to happen)
Present: Succedo
Past (Preterit): Successi
Future: Succederò
Conditional: Succederei
Participle: Successo
Tacere (to remain silent)
Present: Tacio, taci, tace, tacciamo, tacete, tacciono
Past (Preterit): Tacqui
Future: Tacerò
Conditional: Tacerei
Participle: Taciuto
Tendere (to stretch)
Present: Tendo
Past (Preterit): Tesi
Future: Tenderò
Conditional: Tenderei
Participle: Teso
Tenere (to keep)
Present: Tengo, tieni, tiene, teniamo, tenete, tengono
Past (Preterit): Tenni
Future: Terrò
Conditional: Terei
Participle: Tenuto
Tingere (to paint)
Present: Tingo
Past (Preterit): Tinsi
Future: Tingerò
Conditional: Tingerei
Participle: Tinto
Togliere (to take away/to remove) - Has the same irregularities as cogliere
Tradurre (to translate) - Has the same irregularities as condurre
Trarre (to pull)
Present: Traggo, trai, trae, traiamo, traete, traggono
Past (Preterit): Trassi
Future: Trarrò
Conditional: Trarrei
Participle: Tratto
Uccidere (to kill)
Present: Uccido
Past (Preterit): Uccisi
Future: Ucciderò
Conditional: Ucciderei
Participle: Ucciso
Udire (to hear, to listen)
Present: Odo, odi, ode, udiamo, udite, odono
Past (Preterit): Udii
Future: Udirò
Conditional: Udirei
Participle: Udito
Uscire (to go out)
Present: Esce, esci, esce, usciamo, uscite, escono
Past (Preterit): Uscii
Future: Uscirò
Conditional: Uscirei
Participle: Uscito
Vedere (to see)
Present: Vedo
Past (Preterit): Vidi
Future: Vedrò
Conditional: Vedrei
Participle: Visto
Venire (to come)
Present: Vengo, Vieni, Viene, Veniamo, Venite, Vengono
Past (Preterit): Venni
Future: Verrò
Conditional: Verrei
Participle: Venuto
Vincere (to conquer)
Present: Vinco
Past (Preterit): Vinsi
Future: Vincerò
Conditional: Vincerei
Participle: Vinto
Vivere (to live)
Present: Vivo
Past (Preterit): Vissi
Future: Vivrò
Conditional: Vivrei
Participle: Vissuto/Vivuto

Volere (to want)
Present: Voglio, vuoi, vuole, vogliamo, volete, vogliono
Past (Preterit): Volli
Future: Vorrò
Conditional: Vorrei
Participle: Voluto
Volgere (to turn around)
Present: Volgo
Past (Preterit): Volsi
Future: Volgerò
Conditional: Volgerei
Participle: Volto


Absoudre (To forgive)
Present: J'absous, Nous absolvons
Past: J'absolvais
Future: J'absoudrai
Conditional: J'absoudrais
Participle: absous
Abstenir (s') (To withhold) - Like Tenir
Acquérir (To get (hold off))
Present: J'acquiers, Tu acquiers, Nous acquérons, Vous acquérez, Ils acquièrent
Past: J'acquérais
Future: J'acquerrai
Conditional: J'acquerrais
Participle: J'ai acquis
Admettre (To admit) - Like Mettre
Aller (To go)
Present: Je vais, Tu vas, Il va, Nous allons, Vous allez, Ils vont
Past: J'allais, Tu allais
Future: J'irai, Tu iras, Il ira, Nous irons, Vous irez, Ils iront
Conditional: J'irais, Tu irais
Perfect: Je suis allé
Apparaître (To appear to) - Like Connaître
Appartenir (To belong to) - Like Tenir
Appartenir (To belong to) - Like Tenir
Apprendre (To learn) - Like Prendre
Assaillir (To attack)
Present: J'assaille
Past: J'assaillais
Future: J'assaillirai
Conditional: J'assaillirais
Participle: assailli
Astreindre (To be forced to) - Like Peindre
Atteindre (To reach) - Like Peindre
Battre (To hit)
Present: Je bats, Nous battons, Ils battent
Past: Je battais
Future: Je battrai
Conditional: Je battrais
Participle: battu
Boire (To drink)
Present: Je bois, Nous buvons, Ils boivent
Past: Je buvais
Future: Je boirai
Conditional: Je boirais
Participle: bu
Bouillir (To boil)
Present: Je bous, Nous bouillons, Ils bouillent
Past: Je bouillais
Future: Je bouillirai
Conditional: Je bouillirais
Perfect: J'ai bouilli
Ceindre (To surround) - Like Peindre
Circonscrire (To encircle) - Like Écrire
Commettre (To commit) - Like Mettre
Commettre (To commit) - Like Mettre
Comprendre (To understand) - Like Prendre
Conclure (To decide)
Present: Je conclus, Nous concluons, Ils concluent
Past: Je concluais
Future: Je conclurai
Conditional: Je conclurais
Perfect: J'ai conclu
Concourir (To cooperate) - Like Courir
Conduire (To lead)
Present: Je conduis, Nous conduisons
Past: Je conduisais
Future: Je conduirai
Conditional: Je conduirais
Perfect: J'ai conduit
Connaître (To know (a person))
Present: Je connais, Tu connais, Il connaît, Nous connaissons, Vous connaissez, Ils connaissent
Past: Je connaissais
Future: Je connaîtrai
Conditional: Je connaîtrais
Perfect: J'ai connu
Conquérir (To conquer) - Like Acquérir
Consentir (To agree) - Like Mentir
Construire (To construct) - Like Conduire
Contenir (To contain) - Like Tenir
Contraindre (To force) - Like Craindre
Contrefaire (To imitate) - Like Faire
Contrevenir (To contravene / To break (the law)) - Like Venir
Convenir (To recognise / To agree) - Like Venir
Courir (To walk)
Present: Je cours
Past: Je courais
Future: Je courrai
Conditional: Je courrais
Perfect: J'ai couru
Couvrir (To cover) - Like Ouvrir
Craindre (To fear)
Present: Je crains, Tu crains, Il craint, Nous craignons, Vous craignez, Ils craignent
Past: Je craignais
Future: Je craindrai
Conditional: Je crandrais
Perfect: J'ai craint
Croire (To believe)
Present: Je crois, Nous croyons, Ils croient
Past: Je croyais
Future: Je croirai
Conditional: Je croirais
Perfect: J'ai cru
Croître (To serve)
Present: Je croîs, Nous croissons, Ils croissent
Past: Je croissais
Future: Je croîtrai
Conditional: Je croîtrais
Perfect: J'ai crû
Cuire (To bake / To fry / To toast) - Like Conduire
Découvrir (To discover) - Like Ouvrir
Décrire (To describe) - Like Écrire
Déduire (To divert) - Like Conduire
Défaire (To undo) - Like Faire
Démettre (To fire (an employee)) - Like Mettre
Dépeindre (To describe) - Like Peindre
Détenir (To detain) - Like Tenir
Détruire (To destruct) - Like Conduire
Devenir (To become) - Like Venir
Dire (To say)
Present: Je dis, Nous disons, Vous dites, Ils disent
Past: Je disais
Future: Je dirai
Conditional: Je dirais
Perfect: J'ai dit
Disconvenir (To deny) - Like Venir
Discourir (To reason) - Like Courir
Disparaître (To dissappear) - Like Connaître
Dissoudre (To solve) - Like Absoudre
Dormir (To sleep)
Present: Je dors, Nous dormons, Vous dormez, Ils dorment
Past: Je dormais
Future: Je dormirai
Conditional: Je dormirais
Perfect: J'ai dormi
Écrire (To write)
Present: J'écris, Nous écrivons, Ils écrivent
Past: J'crivais
Future: J'écrirai
Conditional: J'écrirais
Perfect: J'ai écrit
Élire (To choose / To vote) - Like Lire
Émettre (To emit) - Like Mettre
Enduire (To catch (a cold)) - Like Conduire
Enfreindre (To violate) - Like Peindre
Entreprendre (To undertake) - Like Prendre
Envoyer (To send)
Present: J'envoie, Tu envoies, Nous envoyons
Past: J'allais, Tu allais, Nous envoyions
Future: J'enverrai
Conditional: J'enverrais
Perfect: J'ai envoyé
Éteindre (To put out (the fire)) - Like Peindre
Étreindre (To embrace) - Like Peindre
Faire (To do/ To make)
Present: Je fais, Nous faisons, Vous faites, Ils font
Past: Je faisais
Future: Je ferai
Conditional: Je ferais
Perfect: J'ai fait
Falloir (To have to)
This verb is a special verb which does not have multiple persons. All forms are 3rd person singular.
Present: Il faut
Past: Il faillait
Future: Il faudra
Conditional: Il faudrait
Perfect: Il a fallu
Fuir (To flee)
Present: Je fuis, Nous fuyons, Ils fuient
Past: Je fuyais
Future: Je fuirai
Conditional: Je fuirais
Perfect: J'ai fui
Induire (To take to / To lead to) - Like Conduire
Inscrire (To Inscribe) - Like Écrire
Instruire (To instruct / To teach) - Like Conduire
Interdire (To forbid) - Like Dire
Intervenir (To intervene) - Like Venir
Lire (To read)
Present: Je lis, Nous lisons, Ils lisent
Past: Je lisais
Future: Je lirai
Conditional: Je lirais
Perfect: J'ai lu
Maintenir (To maintain) - Like Tenir
Mentir (To lie/To be dishonest)
Present: Je mens, Nous mentons, Ils mentent
Past: Je mentais
Future: Je mentirai
Conditional: Je mentirais
Perfect: J'ai menti
Méprendre (se) (To be mistaken) - Like Prendre
Mettre (To put)
Present: Je mets, Nous mettons
Past: Je mettais
Future: Je mettrai
Conditional: Je mettrais
Perfect: J'ai mis
Mourir (To die)
Present: Je meurs, Nous mourons, Ils meurent
Past: Je mourais
Future: Je mourrai
Conditional: Je mourrais
Perfect: Je suis mort (ms)/ morte (fs)/ morts (mp)/ mortes (fp)
Mouvoir (To move)
Present: Je meus, Nous mouvons, Ils meuvent
Past: Je mouvais
Future: Je mouvrai
Conditional: Je mouvrais
Perfect: J'ai mû
Naître (To be born)
Present: Je nais, Il naît, Nous naissons
Past: Je naissais
Future: Je naîtrai
Conditional: Je naîtrais
Perfect: Je suis né (ms) / née (fs) / nés (mp) / nées (fp)
Obtenir (To obtain) - Like Tenir
Offrir (To offer)
Present: J'offre, Nous offrons
Past: J'offrais
Future: Je offrirai
Conditional: Je offrirais
Perfect: J'ai offert
Ommettre (To omit) - Like Mettre
Ouvir (To open)
Present: J'ouvre
Past: J'ouvrais
Future: J'ouvrirai
Conditional: J'ouvrirais
Perfect: J'ai ouvert
Paraître (To appear) - Like Connaître
Partir (To leave)
Present: Je pars, Nous partons
Past: Je partais
Future: Je partirai
Conditional: Je partirais
Perfect: J'suis parti (ms) / partie (fs) / partis (mp) / parties (fp)
Peindre (To paint)
Present: Je peins, Nous peignons, Ils peignent
Past: Je peignais
Future: Je peindrai
Conditional: Je peindrais
Perfect: J'ai peint
Permettre (To Permit) - Like Mettre
Plaindre (To complain) - Like Craindre
Plaire (To please)
Present: Je plais, Il plaît, Nous plaisons
Past: Je plaisais
Future: Je plairai
Conditional: Je plairais
Perfect: J'ai plu
Pouvoir (To be able to/ To can)
Present: Je peux (Je puis), Tu peux, Il peut, Nous pouvons, Ils peuvent
Past: Je pouvais
Future: Je pourrai
Conditional: Je pourrais
Perfect: J'ai pu
Prendre (To take)
Present: Je prends, Nous prenons, Ils prennent
Past: Je prenais
Future: Je prendrai
Conditional: Je prendrais
Perfect: J'ai pris
Prescrire (To order) - Like Écrire
Prévenir (To prevent) - Like Venir
Prévoir (To foresee) - Like Voir
Produire (To produce / To cause) - Like Conduire
Prommettre (To promise) - Like Mettre
Proscrire (To ban) - Like Écrire
Réconnaître (To recognize) - Like Connaître
Recourir (To resort to) - Like Courir
Recouvrir (To recover) - Like Ouvrir
Redire (To repeat) - Like Dire
Refaire (To redo) - Like Faire
Répartir (To divide) - Like Partir
Repentir (se) (To regret) - Like Mentir
Requérir (To demand) - Like Acquérir
Résoudre (To solve/ To decide)
Present: Je résous, Nous résolvons
Past: Je résolvais
Future: Je résoudrai
Conditional: Je résoudrais
Perfect: J'ai résolu
Restreindre (To restrain) - Like Peindre
Retenir (To retain) - Like Tenir
Revenir (To return) - Like Venir
Rire (To laugh)
Present: Je ris, Nous rions, Ils rient
Past: Je riais
Future: Je rirai
Conditional: Je rirais
Perfect: J'ai ri
S'Asseoir (To sit)
Present: Je m'assieds, Nous nous asseyons, Ils s'asseyent
Past: Je m'asseyais
Future: Je m'assiérai
Conditional: Je m'assiérais
Perfect: Je me suis assis (ms) / assise (fs) / assis (mp) / assises (fp)
Satisfaire (To satisfy) - Like Faire
Savoir (To know)
Present: Je sais, Nous savons
Past: Je savais
Future: Je saurai
Conditional: Je saurais
Perfect: J'ai su
Secourir (To assist / To help) - Like Courir
Séduire (To seduct) - Like Conduire
Sentir (To feel/ To smell) - Like Mentir
Servir (To serve)
Present: Je sers, Nous servons, Ils servent
Past: Je servais
Future: Je servirai
Conditional: Je servirais
Perfect: J'ai servi
Sortir (To exit) - Like Partir
Souffrir (To suffer / To tolerate) - Like Offrir
Soumettre (To subject) - Like Mettre
Souscrire (To sign) - Like Écrire
Soutenir (To sustain / To support) - Like Tenir
Souvenir (se) (To remember) - Like Venir
Suivre (To follow)
Present: Je suis, Nous suivons, Ils suivent
Past: Je suivais
Future: Je suivrai
Conditional: Je suivrais
Perfect: J'ai suivi
Surfaire (To overestimate) - Like Faire
Surprendre (To surprise) - Like Prendre
Survivre (To survive) - Like Vivre
Taire (se) (To be silent) - Like Plaire
Teindre (To paint) - Like Peindre
Tenir (To hold/To keep)
Present: Je tiens, Nous tenons, Ils tiennent
Past: Je tenais
Future: Je tiendrai
Conditional: Je tiendrais
Perfect: J'ai tenu
Transcrire (To overwrite) - Like Écrire
Transmettre (To transmit) - Like Mettre
Tresaillir (To shake) - Like Assaillir
Vaincre (To win)
Present: Je vaincs, Il vainc, Nous vainquons, Ils vainquent
Past: Je vainquais
Future: Je vaincrai
Conditional: Je vaincrais
Perfect: J'ai vaincu
Valoir (To be worth)
Present: Je vaux, Il vaut, Nous valons
Past: Je valais
Future: Je vaudrai
Conditional: Je vaudrais
Perfect: J'ai valu
Venir (To come)
Present: Je viens, Nous venons, Ils viennent
Past: Je venais
Future: Je viendrai
Conditional: Je viendrais
Perfect: Je suis venu (ms) / venue (fs) / venus (mp) / venues (fp)
Vêtir (To dress)
Present: Je vêts, Nous vêtons
Past: Je vêtais
Future: Je vêtirai
Conditional: Je vêtirais
Perfect: J'ai vêtu
Vivre (To live)
Present: Je vis, Nous vivons, Ils vivent
Past: Je vivais
Future: Je vivrai
Conditional: Je vivrais
Perfect: J'ai vécu
Voir (To see)
Present: Je vois, Nous voyons, Ils voient
Past: Je voyais
Future: Je verrai
Conditional: Je verrais
Perfect: J'ai vu
Vouloir (To want)
Present: Je veux, Nous voulons, Ils veulent
Past: Je voulais
Future: Je voudrai
Conditional: Je voudrais
Perfect: J'ai voulu
Past Perfect: J'avais voulu


About (The book is about a castle) Sobre Sobre Sopra Sur
About (In about five minutes) Acerca (de) Acerca de Circa Environ
Above (It flies above the house) Encima (de) Acima de Sopra Au-dessus
After (After the party) Después Depois Dopo Depuis
Around (It's around the house) Alrededor (de) Em volta de Attorno a Autour de
At (We're at the party) En Em Su à
At the end of Al fondo (de)
Before (Before you go) Antes (de) Antes de Prima di Avant
Behind (I'm behind the house) Detrás (de) Atrás de Dietro Derrière
Below (It crawls below the house) Debajo (de) Embaixo de Sotto Sous
Beneath (It crawls beneath the house) Debajo (de) Embaixo de Sotto Sous
Between (It's between the towers) Entre Entre Tra Entre
Beyond (It's beyond the bridge) Más allá (de) Além de al di là di Au-delà de
By (Stand by the light) Por Perto de Per Près/Chez
By (We go by bus) Por Por Per En/à/Par
Down (Look down the stairs) Abajo Embaixo de Sotto Sous
During Durante Durante Durante Pendant/Durant
For (This is for you) Para Para Per Pour
From (This is from my father) De De Di De
In (I'm in the house) En/Dentro (de) Em/Dentro de In/Dentro Dans
In (In the summer) En em In En
In (I'll be there in five minutes) En Em Tra Dans
Inside Dentro de Dentro de Dentro Dans
Into (I go into the house) En Em In Dans
In front of Delante (de) Em frente (de) Davanti Devant
In the middle of En el centro (de) No meio (de)
Near (It's near you) Cerca (de) Perto (de) Presso Près
On (The book is on the table) En Em Su Sur
On top of Encima (de) Em cima (de) In cima a En haut de
Opposite to (It's opposite to you) Enfrente (de) Em frente (de) Di fronte a En face de
Outside Fuera (de) Fora (de) Fuori di Hors de
Over (I jump over the gap) Por encima (de) Por cima Entro Au-dessus
Past (I walk past the house) Por delante Por Lungo Le long de
Through (I walk through the door) A través (de) Através (de) Attraverso A travers/Par
To (I walk to the house) A A A A
To (This object helps to walk) Por Por Per
Towards (I go towards the house) Hacia Em direção a
Under (It's under the table) Debajo (de) Embaixo(de)(BR)
Sotto Dessous/Sous
Until (Only until 3pm) Hasta Até Fino a Jusqu`a/A
With (I walk with you) Con Com Con Avec
Without (I go without you) Sin Sem Senza Sans


According to Según Segundo Secondo Selon
Although Aunque Embora Sebbene Bien que
And Y E E Et
As (as we grow we get....) Conforme/Según Conforme
As soon as Tan pronto como Assim que Non appena Aussitôt que
Because Porque Porque Perché Parce que
Before Antes (de) que Antes que Prima che Avant que
But Pero/Mas Mais Ma/Però Mais
Even if Aun cuando Mesmo que Si
If Si Se Se Si
In spite of Pese a que Apesar de Malgrado Malgré
In such as way that
Nevertheless A pesar de que Todavia Tuttavia Pourtant
On the contrary Al contrario muito pelo ~ contrário Al contrario Au contraire
Or O Ou O Ou
Provided that A condición de que Contanto que A condizione que A condition de quexs
Since (Since yesterday) Desde Desde que Dacché Depuis que
Since (I will do it since it's) Para que Visto que Poiché Puisque
So Así que De modo que Dunque Donc
Unless A menos que no A menos que no A meno che non á moins que ne
Until Hasta que Até que Finché Jusqu'à ce que
While Mientras que Enquanto Mentre Pendant que
With con que Com que Con che Avec que
Without sin que Sem que Senza che Sans que


Yes Sim Si Oui
No No Não Non Non
Hello Hola Olá Ciao Salut
How do you do? ¿Como está? Como está? Come stai? Ça va?
Good day Buenos días Bom dia Buongiorno Bonjour
Goodbye Adiós Adeus Ciao Adieu
See you Hasta la vista Até logo Arrivederci Au revoir
Sorry Desculpame Desculpe-me Scusate Pardon
Thank you Gracias Obrigado Grazie Merci
Welcome Bienvenido Bemvindo Benvenuto Bienvenue


already ya già déjà
always siempre sempre sempre toujours
constantly constantemente constantemente continuo constamment
daily diario diário quotidiano quotidien
early temprano cedo mattutino tôt
ever alguna vez alguma vez mai jamais
frequently frecuentamente freqüentemente spesso frequentement
late tarde tarde tardivo tard
lately últimamente ultimamente ultimamente dernièrement
later más tarde mais tarde poi plus tard
never nunca/jámas nunca non...mai ne...jamais
now ahora agora ora maintenant
nowadays hoy en día hoje em dia actuellement
à présent
often muchas veces muitas vezes spesso souvent
rarely raramente raramente raramente rarement
seldom rara vez raramente raramente rarement
shortly en breve em breve brievement
sometime alguna día algum dia una volta une fois
sometimes a veces
a menudo
às vezes qualche volta quelquefois
soon pronto logo presto bientôt
still todavía/aún ainda ancora encore
tomorrow mañana amanhã domani demain
usually usualmente normalmente usualemente normalment
weekly semanalmente semanalmente settimanale hebdomadairement
yearly anualmente anualmente all'anno annuel
yesterday ayer ontem Ieri hier


far lejos muito longe lontano loin
here aquí/acá aqui qui ici
left al la izquierda à esquerda a sinistra à gauche
near cerca perto presso tout-près
right al la derecha à direita a destro à droit
there allí/allá/ahí aí, ali, lá là-bas


bad mal ruim malo mouvais
fast rapidamente rapidamente rapidamente rapidement
hardly casi no/apenas apenas appena à peine
loud alto alto alto haut
slowly lentamente lentamente lentamente lentement
softly blandamente suavemente morbidamente doucement
very muy mui assai très
well bien bem bene bien


actually en realidad realmente
in realtà
au fond
certainly ciertamente certamente certamente certainement
likely probablemente provavelmente probabilmente probablement
maybe quizá(s)
tal vez/acaso
talvez forse peut-être
naturally naturalmente naturalmente naturalmente naturellement
of course por supuesto naturalmente naturalmente naturellement
only solamente somente solo seulement
probably probablemente provavelmente probabilmente probablement
unlikely improbable improvavelmente improbabilmente improbablement


alive vivo/viviente vivo vivo/vivente vivant
antique antiguo antigo antico antique
available disponible disponível disponible disponible
awful tremendo terrível terribile terrible
bad malo mau/má cattivo mauvais
beautiful hermoso/lindo belo/lindo bello/bellino beau (m)
belle (f)
big grande grande grande grand
black negro preto/negro nero noire
blue azul azul blu bleu
boring aburrido chato/maçante noioso ennuyeux
bright claro claro chiaro clair
brown moreno/castaño marrom (BR)
castanho (PT)
bruno brun/marron
clean limpio limpo pulito propre
clear claro claro chiaro clair
closed cerrado fechado chiuso fermé/clos
cold frío frio freddo froid
common común comum comune commun
correct correcto correto corretto correct
cosy cómodo aconchegante confortevole agréable
daily diario diário quotidiano quotidien
dark oscuro escuro oscuro obscur
dead muerte morto morto mort
defect defecto defeito diffeto défaut
dense denso denso denso serré
developed desarrollado desenvolvado développé
different diferente diferente differente différent
difficult difícil difícil difficile difficile
dirty sucio sujo sudicio sale/malpropre
dry seco seco asciutto sec (m)
sèche (f)
dumb mudo mudo stupido bête/stupide
easy facíl fácil facile facile
educative educativo educativo éducatif
empty vacío vazio vuoto vide
expected esperado esperado aspettato attendu
fantastic fantástico fantástico fantastico fantastique
far lejano/distante distante distante/remoto lointant/éloigné
fast rapido rapido rapido rapide
filled llenado ripieno
first primero primeiro primo première
flying volando volante volant
full lleno cheio pieno plein
funny cómico
gentle suave/dulce leve/suave dulce doux (m), douce (f)
good bueno bom bene bon (m), bonne (f)
gray/grey gris cinzento grigio gris
green verde verde verde vert
handsome guapo bonito carino beau
happy contento/alegre
feliz allegro content/heureux
hard (not soft) duro duro duro dur
hard (difficlt) difícil difícil difficile difficile
heavy pesado pesado pesante lourd/pesant
high alto alto alto haut
hollow hueco oco vuoto creux
holy sagrado sagrado sacro sacré
horrible horrible horrível orribile horrible
ill enfermo/malo doente ammalato malade
improved mejorado melhorado migliorato amélioré
incorrect incorrecto incorreto incorretto incorrect
intelligent inteligente inteligente intelligente intelligent
interesting interesante interessante interessante intéressant
invited invitado convidado invitato invité
known conocido conhecido conoscuto connu
large grande grande grande grand
last último último ultimo dernière
light (bright) claro claro chiaro clair
light (weight) ligero leve leggero léger
liquid líquido líquido liquido liquide
little pequeño pequeno piccolo petit
long largo longo lungo longue
low bajo baixo baso bas
many muchos muitos molti beaucoup des
moving movél
much mucho muito molto beaucoup de
narrow estrecho estreito angusto étroit
near cercano vizinho vicino tout-près
new nuevo novo nuovo nouveau (m)
nouvelle (f)
next próximo
nice agradable/ameno
old viejo velho vecchio vieux (m)
vielle (f)
open abierto aberto aperto ouvert
other otro outro altro autre
pink rosa rosa rosa rose
poor pobre pobre povero pauvre
pretty guapo/lindo
bonito carino belle (f)
previous previo anterior scorso précédent/antérieur
primitive primitivo primitivo primitif
purple purpúreo roxo/purpúreo porporino violet
quick rápido/pronto rápido rapido rapide
red rojo vermelho rosso rouge
rich rico rico ricco riche
round redondo redondo rotondo rond
same mismo/igual mesmo stesso/uguale même/pareil/égal
satisfied satisfecho satisfeito soddisfato satisfait
short corto/breve curto/breve corto/breve court
bref (m), brève (f)
sick enfermo/mareado doente amallato malade
similar semejante semalhante simile même/égal
slow lento lento lento lent
small pequeño pequeno piccolo petit
smart listo astuto perspicace malin/fin/futé
soft blando/suave mole morbido/polposo mou (m), molle (f)
solid sólido sólido solide
sparse disperso/escaso escasso
splendid espléndido esplêndido formidabile formidable
square cuadrado quadrado quadrato carré
strange extraño estranho strano étranger
strong fuerte forte forte fort
terrible terrible terrível terribile terrible
thick espeso espesso obeso/spesso
thin delgado magro/fino sottile/fino mince/ténu/maigre
ugly feo feio brutto laid/vilain
unexpected inesperado inesperado inaspettato inattendu
unhappy infeliz infeliz infelice incontent
unique único único unico unique
vague vago vago vago vague
warm caliente quente caldo chaud
weak débil/flojo fraco/débil fiacco/debole faible
wet mojado molhado bagnato mouillé
white blanco branco bianco blanc
wide ancho largo largo large
yellow amarillo amarelo giallo jaune
young jovén jovem giovane jeune
yearly anual anual annuale annuel


* = (semi-)irregular verb

to accept aceptar aceitar accogliere* accepter
to add añadir acrescentar aggiungere* ajouter
to agree estar de ~
concordar acconsentire être d'accord
to allow permitir permitir permettere* permettre
to appear parecer
aparecer apparire* paraître
to arrest arrestar prender/deter arrestare arrêter
to ask preguntar perguntar domandare* demander
to assist asistir/ayudar ajudar assistere* seconder/aider
to attack atacar atacar attaccare
to attend atender atender
to bake cocer al horno cozinhar ~
ao forno
friggere* faire cuire
to be ser*/estar* ser*/estar* essere* être*
to be able/can poder* poder* potere* pouvoir*
to be born nacer nascer naître
to be right tener rázon ter razão avoir raison
to become ser/hacerse
a ser
divenire* devenir
to begin comenzar*
to believe creer crer credere croire
to bend combar(se) curvar curvare courber/plier
to bite morder morder mordere mordre
to bring traer* trazer portare porter
to build construir construir costruire construire
to burn quemar* queimar ardere* brûler
to buy comprar comprar comprare* acheter
to calculate calcular calcular calculare calculer
to call llamar chamar chiamare appeler
to carry llevar levar portare porter
to catch coger* pegar (BR)
apanhar (PT)
to change cambiar mudar cambiare
to check parar/controlar controlar/parar controllare contrôler
to choose escoger*/elegir*escolher scegliere* choisir
to close cerrar* fechar chiudere* fermer
to come venir* vir* venire* venir
to complain quejarse queixar-se lagnarsi se plaindre
to comply conformarse
cumprir ubbidire
to confront afrontar/carear enfrenter confronter
to continue continuar continuar continuare continuer
to control mandar
controlar controllare contrôler
to cook cocinar/cocer cozinhar cucinare cuire
to count contar* contar contare compter
to create crear criar creare creer
to cross atravesar
attravesare traverser
to cry llorar/gritar chorar/gritar piangere* pleurer
to cure curar curar curare guérir
to curse maldecir xingar (BR)
praguejar (PT)
bestemmiare jurer
to cut cortar cortar tagliare (dé)couper
to dance bailar dançar ballare dancer
to dare osar atrever-se a~
fazer algo/
osare oser
to decide decidir decidir decidere* décider
to defend defender defender difendere* défendre
to demand demandar/exigir exigir esigere* exiger
to die morir morrer morire* mourir
to dig cavar cavar scavare* creuser
to disappear desaparecer desaparecer sparire disparaître
to discover descubrir descobrir scoprire* découvrir
to discuss hablar de
tratar de
discutir discutere* discuter
to do hacer* fazer* parlare faire
to draw dibujar desenhar disegnare dessiner
to dream soñar* sonhar sognare rêver
to drink beber beber bere boire
to drive conducir dirigir (BR)
guiar (PT)
guidare rouler/conduire
to eat comer comer mangiare manger
to encounter encontrar encontrar incontrare renconter
to enter entrar entrar entrare entrer
to erase borrar apagar effacer
to escape escapar/evidar* escapar scappare échapper
to exist existir existir esistere exister
to explain explicar explicar spiegare expliquer
to fall caer* cair cadere tomber
to fear temer/tener~
temer/ter medo avoir peur
to feed dar de comer a
dar de comer a nutrire nourrir
to feel sentir* sentir sentire sentir
to fight combatir*
batirse con
(se) battre
to find encontrar*
incontrare trouver
to finish acabar/terminar
acabar/terminar terminare finir
to fit acomodar caber convenire* aller (bien)
to fix fijar fixar riparare réparer
to flee huir* fugir fuggire fuir
to flow fluir/correr fluir scorrere* couler
to fly volar voar volare voler
to follow seguir seguir seguire suivre
to forget olvidar(se) esquecer dimenticare oublier
to free librar pôr em ~
liberare libérer
to fry freír(se) fritar friggere* faire frire
to get coger*/obtener*
ficar ottenere* recevoir
to give dar* dar dare donner
to go ir* ir andare* aller
to grow crecer* crescer crescere* croître
to hate odiar odiar/detestar odiare détester/haïr
to have tener ter* abbere* avoir
to have to/must deber/tener que dever/ter que dovere* devoir/falloir
to hear oír* ouvir udire* entendre
to heat calentar(se) esquentar scaldare chauffer
to help ayudar ajudar aiutare aider
to hide esconder esconder celare cacher
to hit golpear/pegar bater picchiare
to hold tener*/retener*
tenere* tenir
to hope esperar esperar sperare espérer
to hurt dañar/lastimar
dolere* faire mal
avoir mal
to invite invitar convidar invitare inviter
to join juntar juntar joindre
to joke bromear
to judge juzgar julgar giudicare juger
to keep mantener
conservare maintenir
to kill matar matar uccidere* tuer
to know (prson) conocer* conhecer conoscere* connaître
to know (fact) saber* saber sapere* savoir
to land aterrizar aterissar (BR)
aterrar (PT)
atterare débarquer
to last durar durar durare durer
to laugh reír(se) rir ridere* rire
to lay poner*
posare mettre
to learn aprender aprender imparare apprendre
to leave dejar/salir deixar/sair lasciare quitter
to lie mentir mentir mentire mentir
to like gustar gostar aimer
to listen escuchar escutar ascoltare écouter
to live vivir viver vivere* vivre
to look mirar olhar guardare regarder
to lose perder perder perdere* perdre
to love amar amar amare aimer
to mix mezclar misturar mescolare mêler/mélanger
to maintain mantener manter maintenir
to make hacer/construir fazer/construir fare faire
to marry casar(se) casar(-se) sposarsi se marier
to measure medir medir misurare mesurer
to meet encontrar encontrar incontrare renconter
to move mover* mover muovere mouvoir
to name llamar chamar chiamare appeler/nommer
to need necesitar necessitar bisognare avoir besoin de
to obey obedecer
ubbidire obéir
to offer ofrecer oferecer offrire* offrir
to open abrir abrir aprire* ouvrir
to order ordenar mandar/ordenar ordinare ordonner
to participate participar participar partecipare participer
to pass pasar passar passare passer
to pay pagar* pagar pagare payer
to phone llamar chamar chiamare appeler
to play jugar* jogar giocare jouer
to practice practicar praticar esercitare exercer
to pray rezar/orar rezar pregare* prier
to promise prometer prometer promettere* promettre
to prove probar comprovar provare prouver
to provide suministar fornecer provvedere*
to push empujar empurrar spingere* pousser
to pull tirar puxar tirare tirer
to put poner*/colocar pôr posare mettre
to reach alcanzar alcançar
to read leer* ler leggere* lire
to receive recibir receber ricevere recevoir
to remain quedar(se) ficar rimanere* rester
to remember recordar*
lembrar(-se) recordare rappeler
to remove remover/quitar remover spostare enlever
to repair reparar consertar riparare réparer
to reply responder
responder rispondere répondre
to resist resistir resistir opporsi* résister
to rotate (hacer) girar (fazer) girar far girare* tourner
to run correr correr correre* courir
to say decir* dizer dire dire
to search buscar buscar cercare* chercher
to see ver* ver vedere* voir
to sell vender vender vendere vendre
to send enviar/mandar enviar/mandar spedire/inviare envoyer
to separate separar separar separare séparer
to shout gritar gritar/berrar gridare/urlare
to shrink encogerse* encolher(-se) restringersi* rétrécir
to show mostrar* mostrar mostrare montrer
to sing cantar cantar cantare chanter
to sit sentarse sentar-se sedere s'asseoir
to skip brincar/saltar saltar omettere* sauter
to sleep dormir* dormir dormire dormir
to smell oler* cheirar odorare sentir
to smile sonreír sorrir sorridere sourire
to sneeze estornudar espirrar starnutire éternuer
to speak hablar falar parlare parler
to spend gastar* gastar spendere* dépenser
to stand estar de pie
estar em pé
stare in piedi* être debout
to stay quedar(se) ficar stare* rester
to stop detener*/parar parar/deter smettere* arrêter
to study estudiar estudar studiare etudier
to succeed tener éxito ter êxito riuscire* réussir
to swallow tragar engolir/tragar inghiottire avaler
to swear jurar* jurar giurare jurer
to swim nadar* nadar nuotare nager
to take tomar* tomar prendere* prendre
to take off despegar decolar salire* décoller
to taste gustar gostar assaggiare goûter
to teach enseñar ensinar insegnare enseigner
to tell contar/decir* contar/dizer raccontare raconter
to tend (to) tender (a) tender (a) tendere (a)
to think pensar* pensar pensare penser
to throw echar*/lanzar*
to touch tocar/palpar tocar toccare toucher
to translate traducir traduzir tradurre* traduire
to travel viajar viajar viaggare voyager
to try probar tentar tentare/provare essayer
to turn volver/tornear voltar voltare tourner
to understand comprender
to unite unir unir unire unir
to use usar usar usare utiliser
to visit visitar visitar visitare visiter
to vote votar votar votare voter
to wait esperar esperar aspettare attendre
to wake despertar acordar svegliare (r)éveiller
to wake up despertarse acordar-se svegliarsi se réveiller
to walk andar*/caminar andar camminare marcher
to want querer* querer volere* vouloir
to wash lavar lavar lavare laver
to wear llevar usar vestire porter
to win gañar ganhar vincere*
to wish desear desejar desiderare désirer
to work trabajar trabalhar lavorare travailler
to worry (pre)ocupar(se)
se faire des soucis
to wound herir ferir ferire blesser
to write escribir* escrever scrivere* écrire


Status of completion of this document:
completed? verified?
Introduction yes n/a
License yes n/a
Personal Pronouns yes yes (fr,it), no (es,pt)
Object Pronouns yes yes (fr,it), no (es,pt)
Indirect Object Pronouns yes yes (fr,it), no (es,pt)
Prepositional Pronouns yes yes (fr,it), no (es,pt)
Definite Articles yes yes (fr,it), no (es,pt)
Indefinite Articles yes yes (fr,it), no (es,pt)
Partitive Articles yes yes (fr,it), no (es,pt)
Noun Gender yes yes (fr,it), no (es,pt)
Plural Nouns yes yes (fr,it), no (es,pt)
Adjectives yes yes (fr,it), no (es,pt)
Adverbs yes yes (fr,it), no (es,pt)
Degrees of Comparison yes yes (fr,it), no (es,pt)
Comparisons of equality ~yes yes (fr,it), no (es,pt)
Possessive Adjectives yes yes (fr,it), no (es,pt)
Possessive Pronouns yes yes (fr,it), no (es,pt)
Demonstrative Adjectives yes yes (fr,it), no (es,pt)
Demonstrative Pronouns yes yes (fr,it), no (es,pt)
Interrogative Pronouns yes yes (fr,it), no (es,pt)
Interrogative Adjectives yes yes (fr,it), no (es,pt)
Regular Verbs yes yes (fr,it), no (es,pt)
Imperfect vs Preterit Tensealmost, lacks examples yes (fr,it), no (es,pt)
Auxiliary Verbs yes yes (fr,it), no (es,pt)
Compound Tenses 50%, lacks tenses yes (fr,it), no (es,pt)
Estar vs Ser yes yes, Miguél Angel Lopera Molero
(Semi) Irregular Verbs almost, lacks translation of PT verbs yes (fr,it), no (es,pt)
Relative Pronouns no (to start yet) yes (fr,it), no (es,pt)
Conditional Sentences no (to start yet) yes (fr,it), no (es,pt)
Passive Sentences no (to start yet) yes (fr,it), no (es,pt)
Prepositions yes yes (fr,it), no (es,pt)
Conjunctions yes yes (fr,it), no (es,pt)
Commonly Used Exclamationsyes yes (fr,it), no (es,pt)
Commonly Used Adverbs yes yes (fr,it), no (es,pt)
Commonly Used Adjectives nearly, still has some gaps yes (fr,it), no (es,pt)
Commonly Used Verbs nearly, still has some gaps yes (fr,it), no (es,pt)


This document is made by Maarten van Gompel (Proycon), assisted by:

ES: Miguél Angel Lopera Molero (rashd)
IT: Annemarie
FR: Annemarie

Created with GNU Emacs 20.7.1, yudit, nedit and gedit on a linux system
Character Encoding: UTF-8 (Unicode)

Made by Maarten van Gompel as part of the Languages Made Clear Project and UniLang Community
Feel free to distribute and modify for NON-COMMERCIAL purpouses. (see LICENSE section)